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# Bond length

About: Bond length is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 19966 publications have been published within this topic receiving 498004 citations.

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TL;DR: In this paper, an analysis in quantitative form is given in terms of breakdowns of the electronic population into partial and total ''gross atomic populations'' and ''overlap populations'' for molecules.

Abstract: With increasing availability of good all‐electron LCAO MO (LCAO molecular orbital) wave functions for molecules, a systematic procedure for obtaining maximum insight from such data has become desirable. An analysis in quantitative form is given here in terms of breakdowns of the electronic population into partial and total ``gross atomic populations,'' or into partial and total ``net atomic populations'' together with ``overlap populations.'' ``Gross atomic populations'' distribute the electrons almost perfectly among the various AOs (atomic orbitals) of the various atoms in the molecule. From these numbers, a definite figure is obtained for the amount of promotion (e.g., from 2s to 2p) in each atom; and also for the gross charge Q on each atom if the bonds are polar. The total overlap population for any pair of atoms in a molecule is in general made up of positive and negative contributions. If the total overlap population between two atoms is positive, they are bonded; if negative, they are antibonded. Tables of gross atomic populations and overlap populations, also gross atomic charges Q, computed from SCF (self‐consistent field) LCAO‐MO data on CO and H2O, are given. The amount of s‐p promotion is found to be nearly the same for the O atom in CO and in H2O (0.14 electron in CO and 0.15e in H2O). For the C atom in CO it is 0.50e. For the N atom in N2 it is 0.26e according to calculations by Scherr. In spite of very strong polarity in the π bonds in CO, the σ and π overlap populations are very similar to those in N2. In CO the total overlap population for the π electrons is about twice that for the σ electrons. The most easily ionized electrons of CO are in an MO such that its gross atomic population is 94% localized on the carbon atom; these electrons account for the (weak) electron donor properties of CO. A comparison between changes of bond lengths observed on removal of an electron from one or another MO of CO and H2, and corresponding changes in computed overlap populations, shows good correlation. Several other points of interest are discussed.

9,238 citations

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TL;DR: The average lengths of bonds involving the elements H, B, C, N, O, F, Si, P, S, Cl, As, Se, Br, Te, and l in organic compounds are reported in this article.

Abstract: The average lengths of bonds involving the elements H, B, C, N, O, F, Si, P, S, Cl, As, Se, Br, Te, and l in organic compounds are reported.

6,649 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, it is shown that there is a strong linear correlation between the parameters for bonds from cations to pairs of anions, and this correlation is used to develop an interpolation scheme that allows the estimation of bond-valence parameters for 969 pairs of atoms.

Abstract: Bond-valence parameters which relate bond valences and bond lengths have been derived for a large number of bonds. It is shown that there is a strong linear correlation between the parameters for bonds from cations to pairs of anions. This correlation is used to develop an interpolation scheme that allows the estimation of bond-valence parameters for 969 pairs of atoms. A complete listing of these parameters is given.

6,255 citations

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TL;DR: The DREIDING force field as discussed by the authors uses general force constants and geometry parameters based on simple hybridization considerations rather than individual force constants or geometric parameters that depend on the particular combination of atoms involved in the bond, angle, or torsion terms.

Abstract: We report the parameters for a new generic force field, DREIDING, that we find useful for predicting structures and dynamics of organic, biological, and main-group inorganic molecules. The philosophy in DREIDING is to use general force constants and geometry parameters based on simple hybridization considerations rather than individual force constants and geometric parameters that depend on the particular combination of atoms involved in the bond, angle, or torsion terms. Thus all bond distances are derived from atomic radii, and there is only one force constant each for bonds, angles, and inversions and only six different values for torsional barriers. Parameters are defined for all possible combinations of atoms and new atoms can be added to the force field rather simply. This paper reports the parameters for the "nonmetallic" main-group elements (B, C, N, 0, F columns for the C, Si, Ge, and Sn rows) plus H and a few metals (Na, Ca, Zn, Fe). The accuracy of the DREIDING force field is tested by comparing with (i) 76 accurately determined crystal structures of organic compounds involving H, C, N, 0, F, P, S, CI, and Br, (ii) rotational barriers of a number of molecules, and (iii) relative conformational energies and barriers of a number of molecules. We find excellent results for these systems.

5,380 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a force field for large-scale reactive chemical systems (1000s of atoms) is proposed. But the force field does not have Coulomb and Morse potentials to describe nonbond interactions between all atoms.

Abstract: To make practical the molecular dynamics simulation of large scale reactive chemical systems (1000s of atoms), we developed ReaxFF, a force field for reactive systems. ReaxFF uses a general relationship between bond distance and bond order on one hand and between bond order and bond energy on the other hand that leads to proper dissociation of bonds to separated atoms. Other valence terms present in the force field (angle and torsion) are defined in terms of the same bond orders so that all these terms go to zero smoothly as bonds break. In addition, ReaxFF has Coulomb and Morse (van der Waals) potentials to describe nonbond interactions between all atoms (no exclusions). These nonbond interactions are shielded at short range so that the Coulomb and van der Waals interactions become constant as Rij → 0. We report here the ReaxFF for hydrocarbons. The parameters were derived from quantum chemical calculations on bond dissociation and reactions of small molecules plus heat of formation and geometry data for...

4,455 citations