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Bose–Einstein condensate

About: Bose–Einstein condensate is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 11966 publications have been published within this topic receiving 357927 citations. The topic is also known as: BCE & Bose condensation.


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Journal ArticleDOI
14 Jul 1995-Science
TL;DR: A Bose-Einstein condensate was produced in a vapor of rubidium-87 atoms that was confined by magnetic fields and evaporatively cooled and exhibited a nonthermal, anisotropic velocity distribution expected of the minimum-energy quantum state of the magnetic trap in contrast to the isotropic, thermal velocity distribution observed in the broad uncondensed fraction.
Abstract: A Bose-Einstein condensate was produced in a vapor of rubidium-87 atoms that was confined by magnetic fields and evaporatively cooled. The condensate fraction first appeared near a temperature of 170 nanokelvin and a number density of 2.5 x 10 12 per cubic centimeter and could be preserved for more than 15 seconds. Three primary signatures of Bose-Einstein condensation were seen. (i) On top of a broad thermal velocity distribution, a narrow peak appeared that was centered at zero velocity. (ii) The fraction of the atoms that were in this low-velocity peak increased abruptly as the sample temperature was lowered. (iii) The peak exhibited a nonthermal, anisotropic velocity distribution expected of the minimum-energy quantum state of the magnetic trap in contrast to the isotropic, thermal velocity distribution observed in the broad uncondensed fraction.

6,074 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors reviewed the Bose-Einstein condensation of dilute gases in traps from a theoretical perspective and provided a framework to understand the main features of the condensation and role of interactions between particles.
Abstract: The phenomenon of Bose-Einstein condensation of dilute gases in traps is reviewed from a theoretical perspective. Mean-field theory provides a framework to understand the main features of the condensation and the role of interactions between particles. Various properties of these systems are discussed, including the density profiles and the energy of the ground-state configurations, the collective oscillations and the dynamics of the expansion, the condensate fraction and the thermodynamic functions. The thermodynamic limit exhibits a scaling behavior in the relevant length and energy scales. Despite the dilute nature of the gases, interactions profoundly modify the static as well as the dynamic properties of the system; the predictions of mean-field theory are in excellent agreement with available experimental results. Effects of superfluidity including the existence of quantized vortices and the reduction of the moment of inertia are discussed, as well as the consequences of coherence such as the Josephson effect and interference phenomena. The review also assesses the accuracy and limitations of the mean-field approach.

4,782 citations

01 Jan 2001
TL;DR: In this paper, a unified introduction to the physics of ultracold atomic Bose and Fermi gases for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as experimentalists and theorists is provided.
Abstract: Since an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate, predicted by Einstein in 1925, was first produced in the laboratory in 1995, the study of ultracold Bose and Fermi gases has become one of the most active areas in contemporary physics. This book explains phenomena in ultracold gases from basic principles, without assuming a detailed knowledge of atomic, condensed matter, and nuclear physics. This new edition has been revised and updated, and includes new chapters on optical lattices, low dimensions, and strongly-interacting Fermi systems. This book provides a unified introduction to the physics of ultracold atomic Bose and Fermi gases for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, as well as experimentalists and theorists. Chapters cover the statistical physics of trapped gases, atomic properties, cooling and trapping atoms, interatomic interactions, structure of trapped condensates, collective modes, rotating condensates, superfluidity, interference phenomena, and trapped Fermi gases. Problems are included at the end of each chapter.

3,534 citations

Proceedings Article
14 Jul 1996
TL;DR: The striking signature of Bose condensation was the sudden appearance of a bimodal velocity distribution below the critical temperature of ~2µK.
Abstract: Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) has been observed in a dilute gas of sodium atoms. A Bose-Einstein condensate consists of a macroscopic population of the ground state of the system, and is a coherent state of matter. In an ideal gas, this phase transition is purely quantum-statistical. The study of BEC in weakly interacting systems which can be controlled and observed with precision holds the promise of revealing new macroscopic quantum phenomena that can be understood from first principles.

3,530 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) phenomenon was first introduced by Bose as discussed by the authors, who derived the Planck law for black-body radiation by treating the photons as a gas of identical particles.
Abstract: In 1924 the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose sent Einstein a paper in which he derived the Planck law for black-body radiation by treating the photons as a gas of identical particles. Einstein generalized Bose's theory to an ideal gas of identical atoms or molecules for which the number of particles is conserved and, in the same year, predicted that at sufficiently low temperatures the particles would become locked together in the lowest quantum state of the system. We now know that this phenomenon, called Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC), only happens for "bosons" – particles with a total spin that is an integer multiple of h, the Planck constant divided by 2π.

3,298 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023261
2022550
2021383
2020391
2019390
2018412