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Bottom ash

About: Bottom ash is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 4742 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 80631 citation(s). more


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JCIS.2010.01.007
Alok Mittal1, Jyoti Mittal1, Arti Malviya1, Vinod Kumar Gupta2  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: This article describes the use of bottom ash [a power plant waste] and de-oiled soya [an agricultural waste] as effective adsorbents for the removal of a hazardous azo dye [Chrysoidine Y] from its aqueous solutions. This paper presents an experimental study and discussion of the adsorption characteristics of this dye on the two adsorbents. The adsorbents have been characterized, and also the effects of time, temperature, concentration, pH, and sieve size on the extent of adsorption have been evaluated. Batch adsorption measurements, kinetic studies, and column operations have been performed to elucidate the dye uptake capacity of the adsorbents. The monolayer adsorption capacities at 30 degrees C have been found from Langmuir analysis to be 7.27x10(-5) mol g(-1) and 3.35x10(-5) mol g(-1) for bottom ash and de-oiled soya, respectively. Adsorption kinetics experimental data are indicative of pseudo-second order kinetics during these processes. Column experiments indicate practical utility of the adsorbents for eradicating hazardous dyes from effluents. The recovery of the adsorbed dye from bottom ash and de-oiled soya, have been found to be 85% and 99%, respectively. more

Topics: P-Aminoazobenzene (56%), Adsorption (55%), Waste disposal (55%) more

776 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JCIS.2009.08.019
Abstract: The present investigation assesses the applicability of waste materials--bottom ash and deoiled soya--for the removal of the colorant Congo red from wastewaters. The adsorption characteristics and dye removal efficiency of adsorbents have been determined by investigating factors such as effect of pH, effect of concentration of the dye, amount of adsorbents, contact time, and temperature. Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm models have been used to evaluate the ongoing adsorption. With the help of adsorption isotherm data different thermodynamic parameters such as free energy; enthalpy, and entropy have been calculated. The estimated free energy has been obtained as -21.52 kJ mol(-1) for bottom ash and -16.88 kJ mol(-1) for deoiled soya. On the basis of pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order kinetic equations different kinetic parameters have been obtained. Column operations depicted good adsorptive tendencies for Congo red with 96.95% and 97.14% saturation of dye on bottom ash and deoiled soya, respectively. Regeneration of the saturated columns has been made by eluting NaOH solution and more than 90% dye has been recovered in both cases. more

Topics: Freundlich equation (58%), Congo red (53%), Adsorption (52%) more

584 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.PECS.2015.09.003
Yanqing Niu1, Houzhang Tan1, Shien Hui1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Biomass is available from many sources or can be mass-produced. Moreover, biomass has a high energy-generation potential, produces less toxic emissions than some other fuels, is mostly carbon neutrality, and burns easily. Biomass has been widely utilized as a raw material in thermal chemical conversion, replacing coal and oil, including power generation. Biomass firing and co-firing in pulverized coal boilers, fluidized bed boilers, and grate furnaces or stokerfed boilers have been developed around the world because of the worsening environmental problems and developing energy crisis. However, many issues hinder the efficient and clean utilization of biomass in energy applications. They include preparation, firing and co-firing, and ash-related issues during and after combustion. In particular, ash-related issues, including alkali-induced slagging, silicate melt-induced slagging (ash fusion), agglomeration, corrosion, and ash utilization, are among the most challenging problems. The current review provides a summary of knowledge and research developments concerning these ash-related issues. It also gives an in-depth analysis and discussion on the formation mechanisms, urgent requirements, and potential countermeasures including the use of additives, co-firing, leaching, and alloying. Alkali species, particularly alkali chlorides and sulfates, cause alkali-induced slagging during biomass combustion. Thus, the mechanisms of generation, transformation, and sequestration of alkali species and the formation and growth of alkali-induced slagging, formed as an alternating overlapping multi-layered structure, are discussed in detail. For silicate melt-induced slagging (ash fusion), the evolutions of chemical composition of both the elements and minerals in the ash during combustion and existing problems in testing are overviewed. Pseudo-4D phase diagrams of (Ma2O)-MaeO-P2O5-Al2O3 and (Ma2O)-MaeO-SiO2-Al2O3 are proposed as effective tools to predict ash fusion characteristics and the properties of melt-induced slagging. Concerning agglomeration that typically occurs in fluidized bed furnaces, melt-induced and coating-induced agglomeration and coating-forming mechanisms are highlighted. Concerning corrosion, seven corrosion mechanisms associated with Cl2, gaseous, solid/deposited, and molten alkali chlorides, molten alkali sulfates and carbonates, and the sulfation/silication of alkali chlorides are comprehensively reviewed. The effects of alloying, salt state (solid, molten, or gaseous), combustion atmosphere, and temperature are also discussed systematically. For ash utilization, potential approaches to the use of fly ash, bottom ash, and biomass/coal co-fired ash as construction and agricultural materials are explored. Several criteria or evaluation indexes are introduced for alkali-induced slagging and agglomeration, and chemical equilibrium calculation and multicomponent phase diagrams of silicate melt-induced slagging and agglomeration. Meanwhile, remedies, including the use of additives, co-firing, leaching, alloying, and the establishment of regulations, are discussed. It is suggested that considerable attention should be focused on an understanding of the kinetics of alkali chemistry, which is essential for the transformation and sequestration of alkali species. A combination of heterogeneous chemical kinetics and multiphase equilibrium modeling is critical to estimating the speciation, saturation levels, and the presence of melt of the ash-forming matter. Further practical evaluation and improvement of the existing criterion numbers of alkali-induced slagging and agglomeration should be improved. The pseudo-4D phase diagrams of (Ma2O)-MaeO-P2O5-Al2O3 and (Ma2O)-MaeO-SiO2-Al2O3 should be constructed from the data derived from real biomass ashes rather than those of simulated ashes in order to provide the capability to predict the properties of silicate melt-induced slagging. Apart from Cr, research should be conducted to understand the effects of Si, Al, and Co, which exhibit high corrosion resistance, and heavy metals such as Zn and Pb, which may form low-melting chlorides that accelerate corrosion. Regulations, cooperation among biomass-fired power plants and other industries, potential technical research, and logistics should be strengthened to enable the extensive utilization of biomass ash. Finally, alkali-induced slagging, silicate melt-induced slagging, agglomeration, and corrosion occur concurrently, and thus, these issues should be investigated jointly rather than separately. more

Topics: Bottom ash (57%), Fly ash (56%), Coal (50%)

493 Citations

Open accessBook
09 Apr 1997-
Abstract: Municipal solid waste. Municipal solid waste incineration technologies. Air emission control strategies. Regulation of MSW incinerators. Issues related to sampling. Characterisation methodologies. Fate elements during incineration. Characterisation of bottom ash. Characterisation of heat recovery system ash. Characterisation of air pollution control residues. Physical aspects of leaching. Chemical aspects of leaching. Leaching tests. Leaching modelling. Leaching data. Separation processes. Solidification and stabilisation. Thermal treatment. Leaching of products. Utilisation. Disposal. more

Topics: Incineration (61%), Incinerator bottom ash (61%), Municipal solid waste (60%) more

483 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JCIS.2009.10.046
Alok Mittal1, Jyoti Mittal1, Arti Malviya1, Dipika Kaur1  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: An agricultural industry waste, deoiled soya, and a waste of thermal power plants, bottom ash, have been tested for their adsorption ability to remove Light Green SF (Yellowish) dye from wastewaters. The effects of various essential experimental parameters (dye concentration, mesh size, temperature, and pH) have been investigated. A study of four isothermal models, Langmuir, Freundlich, Tempkin, and Dubinin-Radushkevich, has been made and important thermodynamic parameters have been calculated. The decreasing values of enthalpy show that the adsorption process is endothermic. Mechanistic studies reveal the involvement of a pseudo-second-order mechanism to drive the adsorption process in dye-bottom ash and dye-deoiled soya systems. It has been observed that a particle diffusion mechanism was prominent in the case of adsorption of the dye on bottom ash and deoiled soya. Column adsorption and desorption experiments further confirmed the practical application of the present research. The percentage adsorption has been obtained as 88.74% and 89.65% with percentage recovery of 99.82% and 99.08% for bottom ash and deoiled soya, respectively. The experimental results confirmed that triarylmethane dye Light Green SF (Yellowish) can be successfully removed and recovered from aqueous solutions economically and efficiently. more

Topics: Light Green SF (60%), Freundlich equation (57%), Adsorption (55%) more

456 Citations

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Hjh (Jos) Jos Brouwers

27 papers, 339 citations

Mohd Haziman Wan Ibrahim

15 papers, 141 citations

Ji-Whan Ahn

14 papers, 72 citations

Hannu Nurmesniemi

12 papers, 314 citations

Takayuki Shimaoka

12 papers, 121 citations

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