Topic

# Boundary layer

About: Boundary layer is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 64972 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1448944 citation(s).

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01 Jan 1955-

Abstract: The flow laws of the actual flows at high Reynolds numbers differ considerably from those of the laminar flows treated in the preceding part. These actual flows show a special characteristic, denoted as turbulence. The character of a turbulent flow is most easily understood the case of the pipe flow. Consider the flow through a straight pipe of circular cross section and with a smooth wall. For laminar flow each fluid particle moves with uniform velocity along a rectilinear path. Because of viscosity, the velocity of the particles near the wall is smaller than that of the particles at the center. i% order to maintain the motion, a pressure decrease is required which, for laminar flow, is proportional to the first power of the mean flow velocity. Actually, however, one ob~erves that, for larger Reynolds numbers, the pressure drop increases almost with the square of the velocity and is very much larger then that given by the Hagen Poiseuille law. One may conclude that the actual flow is very different from that of the Poiseuille flow.

17,189 citations

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Abstract: Two new two-equation eddy-viscosity turbulence models will be presented. They combine different elements of existing models that are considered superior to their alternatives. The first model, referred to as the baseline (BSL) model, utilizes the original k-ω model of Wilcox in the inner region of the boundary layer and switches to the standard k-e model in the outer region and in free shear flows. It has a performance similar to the Wilcox model, but avoids that model's strong freestream sensitivity

12,746 citations

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31 Jul 1988-

Abstract: 1 Mean Boundary Layer Characteristics.- 1.1 A boundary-layer definition.- 1.2 Wind and flow.- 1.3 Turbulent transport.- 1.4 Taylor's hypothesis.- 1.5 Virtual potential temperature.- 1.6 Boundaiy layer depth and structure.- 1.7 Micrometeorology.- 1.8 Significance of the boundary layer.- 1.9 General references.- 1.10 References for this chapter.- 1.11 Exercises.- 2 Some Mathematical and Conceptual Tools: Part 1. Statistics.- 2.1 The significance of turbulence and its spectrum.- 2.2 The spectral gap.- 2.3 Mean and turbulent parts.- 2.4 Some basic statistical methods.- 2.5 Turbulence kinetic energy.- 2.6 Kinematic flux.- 2.7 Eddy flux.- 2.8 Summation notation.- 2.9 Stress.- 2.10 Friction velocity.- 2.11 References.- 2.12 Exercises.- 3 Application of the Governing Equations to Turbulent Flow.- 3.1 Methodology.- 3.2 Basic governing equations.- 3.3 Simplifications, approximations, and scaling arguments.- 3.4 Equations for mean variables in a turbulent flow.- 3.5 Summary of equations, with simplifications.- 3.6 Case studies.- 3.7 References.- 3.8 Exercises.- 4 Prognostic Equations for Turbulent Fluxes and Variances.- 4.1 Prognostic equations for the turbulent departures.- 4.2 Free convection scaling variables.- 4.3 Prognostic equations for variances.- 4.4 Prognostic equations for turbulent fluxes.- 4.5 References.- 4.6 Exercises.- 5 Turbulence Kinetic Energy, Stability, and Scaling.- 5.1 The TKE budget derivation.- 5.2 Contributions to the TKE budget.- 5.3 TKE budget contributions as a function of eddy size.- 5.4 Mean kinetic energy and its interaction with turbulence.- 5.5 Stability concepts.- 5.6 The Richardson number.- 5.7 The Obukhov length.- 5.8 Dimensionless gradients.- 5.9 Miscellaneous scaling parameters.- 5.10 Combined stability tables.- 5.11 References.- 5.12 Exercises.- 6 Turbulence Closure Techniques.- 6.1 The closure problem.- 6.2 Parameterization rules.- 6.3 Local closure - zero and half order.- 6.4 Local closure - first order.- 6.5 Local closure - one-and-a-half order.- 6.6 Local closure - second order.- 6.7 Local closure - third order.- 6.8 Nonlocal closure - transilient turbulence theory.- 6.9 Nonlocal closure - spectral diffusivity theory.- 6.10 References.- 6.11 Exercises.- 7 Boundary Conditions and External Forcings.- 7.1 Effective surface turbulent flux.- 7.2 Heat budget at the surface.- 7.3 Radiation budget.- 7.4 Fluxes at interfaces.- 7.5 Partitioning of flux into sensible and latent portions.- 7.6 Flux to and from the ground.- 7.7 References.- 7.8 Exercises.- 8 Some Mathematical and Conceptual Tools: Part 2. Time Series.- 8.1 Time and space series.- 8.2 Autocorrelation.- 8.3 Structure function.- 8.4 Discrete Fourier transform.- 8.5 Fast Fourier Transform.- 8.6 Energy spectrum.- 8.7 Spectral characteristics.- 8.8 Spectra of two variables.- 8.9 Periodogram.- 8.10 Nonlocal spectra.- 8.11 Spectral decomposition of the TKE equation.- 8.12 References.- 8.13 Exercises.- 9 Similarity Theory.- 9.1 An overview.- 9.2 Buckingham Pi dimensional analysis methods.- 9.3 Scaling variables.- 9.4 Stable boundary layer similarity relationship lists.- 9.5 Neutral boundary layer similarity relationship lists.- 9.6 Convective boundary layer similarity relationship lists.- 9.7 The log wind profile.- 9.8 Rossby-number similarity and profile matching.- 9.9 Spectral similarity.- 9.10 Similarity scaling domains.- 9.11 References.- 9.12 Exercises.- 10 Measurement and Simulation Techniques.- 10.1 Sensor and measurement categories.- 10.2 Sensor lists.- 10.3 Active remote sensor observations of morphology.- 10.4 Instrument platforms.- 10.5 Field experiments.- 10.6 Simulation methods.- 10.7 Analysis methods.- 10.8 References.- 10.9 Exercises.- 11 Convective Mixed Layer.- 11.1 The unstable surface layer.- 11.2 The mixed layer.- 11.3 Entrainment zone.- 11.4 Entrainment velocity and its parameterization.- 11.5 Subsidence and advection.- 11.6 References.- 11.7 Exercises.- 12 Stable Boundary Layer.- 12.1 Mean Characteristics.- 12.2 Processes.- 12.3 Evolution.- 12.4 Other Depth Models.- 12.5 Low-level (nocturnal) jet.- 12.6 Buoyancy (gravity) waves.- 12.7 Terrain slope and drainage winds.- 12.8 References.- 12.9 Exercises.- 13 Boundary Layer Clouds.- 13.1 Thermodynamics.- 13.2 Radiation.- 13.3 Cloud entrainment mechanisms.- 13.4 Fair-weather cumulus.- 13.5 Stratocumulus.- 13.6 Fog.- 13.7 References.- 13.8 Exercises.- 14 Geographic Effects.- 14.1 Geographically generated local winds.- 14.2 Geographically modified flow.- 14.3 Urban heat island.- 14.4 References.- 14.5 Exercises.- Appendices.- A. Scaling variables and dimensionless groups.- B. Notation.- C. Useful constants parameters and conversion factors.- D. Derivation of virtual potential temperature.- Errata section.

8,472 citations

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01 Jan 1974-

Abstract: 1 Preliminary Concepts 2 Fundamental Equations of Compressible Viscous Flow 3 Solutions of the Newtonian Viscous-Flow Equations 4 Laminar Boundary Layers 5 The Stability of Laminar Flows 6 Incompressible Turbulent Mean Flow 7 Compressible Boundary Layer Flow Appendices A Transport Properties of Various Newtonian Fluids B Equations of Motion of Incompressible Newtonian Fluids in Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinates C A Runge-Kutta Subroutine for N Simultaneous Differential Equations Bibliography Index

6,567 citations

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Abstract: One major drawback of the eddy viscosity subgrid‐scale stress models used in large‐eddy simulations is their inability to represent correctly with a single universal constant different turbulent fields in rotating or sheared flows, near solid walls, or in transitional regimes. In the present work a new eddy viscosity model is presented which alleviates many of these drawbacks. The model coefficient is computed dynamically as the calculation progresses rather than input a priori. The model is based on an algebraic identity between the subgrid‐scale stresses at two different filtered levels and the resolved turbulent stresses. The subgrid‐scale stresses obtained using the proposed model vanish in laminar flow and at a solid boundary, and have the correct asymptotic behavior in the near‐wall region of a turbulent boundary layer. The results of large‐eddy simulations of transitional and turbulent channel flow that use the proposed model are in good agreement with the direct simulation data.

6,329 citations