Topic

# Boundary (topology)

About: Boundary (topology) is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 72896 publications have been published within this topic receiving 1132277 citations. The topic is also known as: frontier & boundary of a set.

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors introduce and study the most basic properties of three new variational problems which are suggested by applications to computer vision, and study their application in computer vision.

Abstract: : This reprint will introduce and study the most basic properties of three new variational problems which are suggested by applications to computer vision. In computer vision, a fundamental problem is to appropriately decompose the domain R of a function g (x,y) of two variables. This problem starts by describing the physical situation which produces images: assume that a three-dimensional world is observed by an eye or camera from some point P and that g1(rho) represents the intensity of the light in this world approaching the point sub 1 from a direction rho. If one has a lens at P focusing this light on a retina or a film-in both cases a plane domain R in which we may introduce coordinates x, y then let g(x,y) be the strength of the light signal striking R at a point with coordinates (x,y); g(x,y) is essentially the same as sub 1 (rho) -possibly after a simple transformation given by the geometry of the imaging syste. The function g(x,y) defined on the plane domain R will be called an image. What sort of function is g? The light reflected off the surfaces Si of various solid objects O sub i visible from P will strike the domain R in various open subsets R sub i. When one object O1 is partially in front of another object O2 as seen from P, but some of object O2 appears as the background to the sides of O1, then the open sets R1 and R2 will have a common boundary (the 'edge' of object O1 in the image defined on R) and one usually expects the image g(x,y) to be discontinuous along this boundary. (JHD)

5,241 citations

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TL;DR: The term immersed boundary (IB) method is used to encompass all such methods that simulate viscous flows with immersed (or embedded) boundaries on grids that do not conform to the shape of these boundaries.

Abstract: The term “immersed boundary method” was first used in reference to a method developed by Peskin (1972) to simulate cardiac mechanics and associated blood flow. The distinguishing feature of this method was that the entire simulation was carried out on a Cartesian grid, which did not conform to the geometry of the heart, and a novel procedure was formulated for imposing the effect of the immersed boundary (IB) on the flow. Since Peskin introduced this method, numerous modifications and refinements have been proposed and a number of variants of this approach now exist. In addition, there is another class of methods, usually referred to as “Cartesian grid methods,” which were originally developed for simulating inviscid flows with complex embedded solid boundaries on Cartesian grids (Berger & Aftosmis 1998, Clarke et al. 1986, Zeeuw & Powell 1991). These methods have been extended to simulate unsteady viscous flows (Udaykumar et al. 1996, Ye et al. 1999) and thus have capabilities similar to those of IB methods. In this review, we use the term immersed boundary (IB) method to encompass all such methods that simulate viscous flows with immersed (or embedded) boundaries on grids that do not conform to the shape of these boundaries. Furthermore, this review focuses mainly on IB methods for flows with immersed solid boundaries. Application of these and related methods to problems with liquid-liquid and liquid-gas boundaries was covered in previous reviews by Anderson et al. (1998) and Scardovelli & Zaleski (1999). Consider the simulation of flow past a solid body shown in Figure 1a. The conventional approach to this would employ structured or unstructured grids that conform to the body. Generating these grids proceeds in two sequential steps. First, a surface grid covering the boundaries b is generated. This is then used as a boundary condition to generate a grid in the volume f occupied by the fluid. If a finite-difference method is employed on a structured grid, then the differential form of the governing equations is transformed to a curvilinear coordinate system aligned with the grid lines (Ferziger & Peric 1996). Because the grid conforms to the surface of the body, the transformed equations can then be discretized in the

2,809 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors extended previous work on the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in the presence of moving immersed boundaries which interact with the fluid and introduced an improved numerical representation of the δ-function.

Abstract: The flow pattern of blood in the heart is intimately connected with the performance of the heart valves. This paper extends previous work on the solution of the Navier-Stokes equations in the presence of moving immersed boundaries which interact with the fluid. The boundary representation now includes the muscular heart wall. The fixed topology of the boundary representation is exploited in the solution of the nonlinear equations which implicitly define the boundary forces. An improved numerical representation of the δ-function is introduced. A fast Laplace-solver is used. The results of calculations with a natural valve and with a prosthetic valve are presented.

2,744 citations

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Microsoft

^{1}TL;DR: In this article, a condition for boundary Majorana fermions is expressed as a condition on the bulk electron spectrum, which is satisfied in the presence of an arbitrary small energy gap induced by proximity of a 3-dimensional p-wave superconductor, provided that the normal spectrum has an odd number of Fermi points in each half of the Brillouin zone.

Abstract: Certain one-dimensional Fermi systems have an energy gap in the bulk spectrum while boundary states are described by one Majorana operator per boundary point. A finite system of length $L$ possesses two ground states with an energy difference proportional to $\exp(-L/l_0)$ and different fermionic parities. Such systems can be used as qubits since they are intrinsically immune to decoherence. The property of a system to have boundary Majorana fermions is expressed as a condition on the bulk electron spectrum. The condition is satisfied in the presence of an arbitrary small energy gap induced by proximity of a 3-dimensional p-wave superconductor, provided that the normal spectrum has an odd number of Fermi points in each half of the Brillouin zone (each spin component counts separately).

2,452 citations

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01 Jan 1989

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors introduce the concept of Logarithmic Sobolev inequalities and Gaussian bounds on heat kernels, as well as Riemannian manifolds.

Abstract: Preface 1. Introductory concepts 2. Logarithmic Sobolev inequalities 3. Gaussian bounds on heat kernels 4. Boundary behaviour 5. Riemannian manifolds References Notation index Index.

2,450 citations