About: Brain stimulation is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 8112 publications have been published within this topic receiving 299301 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It was found that the development of motor seizures by stimulation of the amygdala resulted in an increased ability of the contralateral amygdala, and the septal area, but not of the hippocampus, to drive motor seizures when stimulated (“transfer”).
TL;DR: Two computational modeling studies are reported, serving to articulate the conflict monitoring hypothesis and examine its implications, including a feedback loop connecting conflict monitoring to cognitive control, and a number of important behavioral phenomena.
Abstract: A neglected question regarding cognitive control is how control processes might detect situations calling for their involvement. The authors propose here that the demand for control may be evaluated in part by monitoring for conflicts in information processing. This hypothesis is supported by data concerning the anterior cingulate cortex, a brain area involved in cognitive control, which also appears to respond to the occurrence of conflict. The present article reports two computational modeling studies, serving to articulate the conflict monitoring hypothesis and examine its implications. The first study tests the sufficiency of the hypothesis to account for brain activation data, applying a measure of conflict to existing models of tasks shown to engage the anterior cingulate. The second study implements a feedback loop connecting conflict monitoring to cognitive control, using this to simulate a number of important behavioral phenomena.
TL;DR: Transcranial electrical stimulation using weak current may be a promising tool to modulate cerebral excitability in a non‐invasive, painless, reversible, selective and focal way.
Abstract: The approach taken in this study to produce localised changes of cerebral excitability in the intact human was modulation of neuronal excitability by weak electric currents applied transcranially. So far, this technique has mainly been used in animal research, primarily through modulation of the resting membrane potential (Terzuolo & Bullock, 1956; Creutzfeld et al. 1962; Eccles et al. 1962; Bindman et al. 1964; Purpura & McMurtry, 1965; Artola et al. 1990; Malenka & Nicoll, 1999). In general, cerebral excitability was diminished by cathodal stimulation, which hyperpolarises neurones. Anodal stimulation caused neuronal depolarisation, leading to an increase in excitability (Bindman et al. 1962; Purpura & McMurtry, 1965), as was shown by spontaneous neuronal discharges and the amplitudes of evoked potentials (Landau et al. 1964; Purpura & McMurtry, 1965; Gorman, 1966). However, in single cortical layers opposite effects were seen (Purpura & McMurtry, 1965), underlining the fact that the effects of DC stimulation depend on the interaction of electric flow direction and neuronal geometry. Enduring effects of 5 h and longer have been described if the stimulation itself lasts sufficiently long, about 10–30 min. These prolonged effects are not simply due to prolonged membrane potential shifts or recurrent excitation, because intermittent complete cancellation of electrical brain activity by hypothermia does not abolish them (Gartside, 1968a,b). Long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) have been proposed as the likely candidates for this phenomenon (Hattori et al. 1990; Moriwaki, 1991; Islam et al. 1995; Malenka & Nicoll, 1999). The concept described here was an attempt to induce neuronal excitability changes in man by application of weak DC stimulation through the intact skull. It has already been demonstrated within invasive presurgical epilepsy diagnostics that intracranial currents of sufficient strength can be achieved in humans by stimulation with surface electrodes at intensities of up to 1.5 mA (Dymond et al. 1975). A suitable candidate for evaluating cortical excitability changes is transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), because it allows the quantification of motor-cortical neurone responses in a painless and non-invasive manner. The amplitude of the resulting motor-evoked potential (MEP) represents the excitability of the motor system. In the following, we confirm the principal possibility of altering cortical excitability by applying weak DC. Furthermore we show that systematic DC stimulation with minimum stimulation duration and intensity is necessary for an effective application of weak current in humans. This is of particular importance for inducing effects which outlast the duration of stimulation.
TL;DR: Dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens has been linked to the efficacy of these unconditioned rewards, but dopamine release in a broader range of structures is implicated in the 'stamping-in' of memory that attaches motivational importance to otherwise neutral environmental stimuli.
Abstract: The hypothesis that dopamine is important for reward has been proposed in a number of forms, each of which has been challenged. Normally, rewarding stimuli such as food, water, lateral hypothalamic brain stimulation and several drugs of abuse become ineffective as rewards in animals given performance-sparing doses of dopamine antagonists. Dopamine release in the nucleus accumbens has been linked to the efficacy of these unconditioned rewards, but dopamine release in a broader range of structures is implicated in the 'stamping-in' of memory that attaches motivational importance to otherwise neutral environmental stimuli.
TL;DR: High-intensity stimulation studies revealed that the development of convulsions was not based simply on threshold reduction, but involved complex reorganization of function.
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