Topic

# Breakage

About: Breakage is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 2811 publications have been published within this topic receiving 48267 citations.

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TL;DR: In this article, a theoretical model for the prediction of drop and bubble (fluid-particle) breakup rates in turbulent dispersions was developed, based on the theories of isotropic turbulence and probability and contains no unknown or adjustable parameters.

Abstract: A theoretical model for the prediction of drop and bubble (fluid-particle) breakup rates in turbulent dispersions was developed. The model is based on the theories of isotropic turbulence and probability and contains no unknown or adjustable parameters. Unlike previous work, this model predicts the breakage rate for original particles of a given size at a given combination of the daughter particle sizes and thus does not need a predefined daughter particle size distribution. The daughter particle size distribution is a result and can be calculated directly from the model. Predicted breakage fractions using the model for the air–water system in a high-intensity pipeline flow agree very well with the available 1991 experimental results of Hesketh et al. Comparisons of the developed model for specific particle breakage rate with earlier models show it to give breakage-rate values bracketed by other models. The spread in predictions is high, and improved experimental studies are recommended for verification.

988 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the amount of particle crushing in a soil element under stress depends on particle size distribution, particle shape, state of effective stress, effective stress path, void ratio, particle hardness, and the presence or absence of water.

Abstract: In order to understand the physics of the strength and stress‐strain behavior of soils and to devise mathematical models that adequately represent such behavior, it is important to define the degree to which the particles of an element of soil are crushed or broken during loading. The amount of particle crushing in a soil element under stress depends on particle size distribution, particle shape, state of effective stress, effective stress path, void ratio, particle hardness, and the presence or absence of water. Data are analyzed for single mineral soils and rockfill‐like materials and equations are presented that can be used to estimate the total breakage expected for a given soil subjected to a specified loading.

955 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors further developed the concept of breakage to formulate a new continuum mechanics theory for crushable granular materials based on statistical and thermomechanical principles.

Abstract: Different measures have been suggested for quantifying the amount of fragmentation in randomly compacted crushable aggregates. A most effective and popular measure is to adopt variants of Hardin's [1985. Crushing of soil particles. J. Geotech. Eng. ASCE 111(10), 1177–1192] definition of relative breakage ‘ B r ’. In this paper we further develop the concept of breakage to formulate a new continuum mechanics theory for crushable granular materials based on statistical and thermomechanical principles. Analogous to the damage internal variable ‘ D ’ which is used in continuum damage mechanics (CDM), here the breakage internal variable ‘ B ’ is adopted. This internal variable represents a particular form of the relative breakage ‘ B r ’ and measures the relative distance of the current grain size distribution from the initial and ultimate distributions. Similar to ‘ D ’, ‘ B ’ varies from zero to one and describes processes of micro-fractures and the growth of surface area. However, unlike damage that is most suitable to tensioned solid-like materials, the breakage is aimed towards compressed granular matter. While damage effectively represents the opening of micro-cavities and cracks, breakage represents comminution of particles. We term the new theory continuum breakage mechanics (CBM), reflecting the analogy with CDM. A focus is given to developing fundamental concepts and postulates, and identifying the physical meaning of the various variables. In this part of the paper we limit the study to describe an ideal dissipative process that includes breakage without plasticity. Plastic strains are essential, however, in representing aspects that relate to frictional dissipation, and this is covered in Part II of this paper together with model examples.

645 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a new particle breakage factor, B 10, is proposed that will allow easy permeability computations for all types of soil tests, such as finite-element analysis.

Abstract: Particle breakage occurs when the stresses imposed on soil particles exceed their strength. To quantify the amount of breakage, many particle breakage factors have been proposed. Correlations of particle breakage parameters with standard soil parameters such as effective mean normal stress at failure and void ratio at failure do not provide a fully unified correlation with many different types of tests. However, particle breakage factors appear to correlate very well with the total energy input into the test specimen, thus providing a single unifying parameter for all types of soil tests. Therefore, the amount of particle crushing may be predicted if the stresses and strains in the soil can be estimated, such as in a finite-element analysis. The principal significant use of these particle breakage factors may be related to permeability estimates when there are changes in gradation due to particle breakage. A new particle breakage factor, B 10 , is proposed that will allow easy permeability computations wh...

626 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a series of ring shear tests was conducted to investigate the development of particle breakage with shear strain for a carbonate sand, and it was found that at very large displacements the soil reached a stable grading, but that the final grading was dependent on both the applied normal stress and the initial grading.

Abstract: A series of ring shear tests was conducted to investigate the development of particle breakage with shear strain for a carbonate sand. It was found that at very large displacements the soil reached a stable grading, but that the final grading was dependent on both the applied normal stress and the initial grading. The particle breakage caused a volumetric compression, which again ceased only when the stable grading had been attained, emphasising that critical states as observed at much smaller strains in triaxial tests are not rigorously defined. Despite the severe degradation of the soil particles the mobilised angle of shearing resistance was found not to change significantly.

524 citations