About: Breakthrough infection is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 250 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 8810 citation(s).
04 Feb 2021-The New England Journal of Medicine
Abstract: Background Vaccines are needed to prevent coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) and to protect persons who are at high risk for complications. The mRNA-1273 vaccine is a lipid nanoparticle-encapsulated mRNA-based vaccine that encodes the prefusion stabilized full-length spike protein of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus that causes Covid-19. Methods This phase 3 randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted at 99 centers across the United States. Persons at high risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection or its complications were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive two intramuscular injections of mRNA-1273 (100 μg) or placebo 28 days apart. The primary end point was prevention of Covid-19 illness with onset at least 14 days after the second injection in participants who had not previously been infected with SARS-CoV-2. Results The trial enrolled 30,420 volunteers who were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive either vaccine or placebo (15,210 participants in each group). More than 96% of participants received both injections, and 2.2% had evidence (serologic, virologic, or both) of SARS-CoV-2 infection at baseline. Symptomatic Covid-19 illness was confirmed in 185 participants in the placebo group (56.5 per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 48.7 to 65.3) and in 11 participants in the mRNA-1273 group (3.3 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 1.7 to 6.0); vaccine efficacy was 94.1% (95% CI, 89.3 to 96.8%; P Conclusions The mRNA-1273 vaccine showed 94.1% efficacy at preventing Covid-19 illness, including severe disease. Aside from transient local and systemic reactions, no safety concerns were identified. (Funded by the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority and the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; COVE ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04470427.).
01 Sep 1998-The Journal of Urology
Abstract: Purpose: We determine whether functional bladder and/or bowel disorders influence the natural history or treatment of children with primary vesicoureteral reflux.Materials and Methods: We assess 143 children with primary vesicoureteral reflux that stopped spontaneously or was a surgically corrected for functional bowel and/or bladder disorders, including bladder instability, constipation and infrequent voiding, termed the dysfunctional elimination syndromes.Results: Dysfunctional elimination syndromes were present in 66 of 143 children (43%) thought to have primary vesicoureteral reflux. Of these 66 patients 54 (82%) had a breakthrough urinary tract infection and underwent reimplantation compared to only 18% without the syndromes. Of 70 children who had a breakthrough urinary tract infection dysfunctional elimination syndromes were present in 54 (77%) and absent in 16 (23%). Of the remaining 73 patients who did not have a breakthrough infection dysfunctional elimination syndromes were present in 1...
Topics: Dysfunctional Elimination Syndrome (70%), Vesicoureteral reflux (64%), Bladder Disorder (52%) ...read more
07 Jul 2015-Annals of Internal Medicine
Abstract: BACKGROUND Novel interferon- and ribavirin-free regimens are needed to treat hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the safety and efficacy of grazoprevir (NS3/4A protease inhibitor) and elbasvir (NS5A inhibitor) in treatment-naive patients. DESIGN Randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02105467). SETTING 60 centers in the United States, Europe, Australia, Scandinavia, and Asia. PATIENTS Cirrhotic and noncirrhotic treatment-naive adults with genotype 1, 4, or 6 infection. INTERVENTION Oral, once-daily, fixed-dose grazoprevir 100 mg/elbasvir 50 mg for 12 weeks, stratified by fibrosis and genotype. Patients were randomly assigned 3:1 to immediate or deferred therapy. MEASUREMENTS Proportion of patients in the immediate-treatment group achieving unquantifiable HCV RNA 12 weeks after treatment (SVR12); adverse events in both groups. RESULTS Among 421 participants, 194 (46%) were women, 157 (37%) were nonwhite, 382 (91%) had genotype 1 infection, and 92 (22%) had cirrhosis. Of 316 patients receiving immediate treatment, 299 of 316 (95% [95% CI, 92% to 97%]) achieved SVR12, including 144 of 157 (92% [CI, 86% to 96%]) with genotype 1a, 129 of 131 (99% [CI, 95% to 100%]) with genotype 1b, 18 of 18 (100% [CI, 82% to 100%]) with genotype 4, 8 of 10 (80% [CI, 44% to 98%]) with genotype 6, 68 of 70 (97% [CI, 90% to 100%]) with cirrhosis, and 231 of 246 (94% [CI, 90% to 97%]) without cirrhosis. Virologic failure occurred in 13 patients (4%), including 1 case of breakthrough infection and 12 relapses, and was associated with baseline NS5A polymorphisms and emergent NS3 or NS5A variants or both. Serious adverse events occurred in 9 (2.8%) and 3 (2.9%) patients in the active and placebo groups, respectively (difference <0.05 percentage point [CI, -5.4 to 3.1 percentage points]); none were considered drug related. The most common adverse events in the active group were headache (17%), fatigue (16%), and nausea (9%). LIMITATION The study lacked an active-comparator control group and included relatively few genotype 4 and 6 infections. CONCLUSION Grazoprevir-elbasvir achieved high SVR12 rates in treatment-naive cirrhotic and noncirrhotic patients with genotype 1, 4, or 6 infection. This once-daily, all-oral, fixed-combination regimen represents a potent new therapeutic option for chronic HCV infection. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE Merck & Co.
04 Aug 2011-Blood
Abstract: Unlike invasive aspergillosis, the prognosis and outcome of hematologic malignancy patients who develop invasive mucormycosis have not significantly improved over the past decade as a majority of patients who develop the infection still die 12 weeks after diagnosis. However, early recognition and treatment of invasive mucormycosis syndromes, as well as individualized approaches to treatment and secondary prophylaxis, could improve the odds of survival, even in the most persistently immunosuppressed patient receiving chemotherapy and/or of stem cell transplantation. Herein, we describe the subtle clinical and radiographic clues that should alert the hematologist to the possibility of mucormycosis, and aggressive and timely treatment approaches that may limit the spread of infection before it becomes fatal. Hematology patients with this opportunistic infection require integrated care across several disciplines and frequently highly individualized and complex sequence of decision-making. We also offer perspectives for the use of 2 antifungals, amphotericin B products and posaconazole, with activity against Mucorales. The availability of posaconazole in an oral formulation that can be administered safely for prolonged periods makes it an attractive agent for long-term primary and secondary prophylaxis. However, serum drug concentration monitoring may be required to minimize breakthrough infection or relapsing mucormycosis associated with inadequate blood concentrations.
10 Jun 2021-The New England Journal of Medicine
Abstract: Emerging variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are of clinical concern. In a cohort of 417 persons who had received the second dose of BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine at least 2 weeks previously, we identified 2 women with vaccine breakthrough infection. Despite evidence of vaccine efficacy in both women, symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 developed, and they tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase-chain-reaction testing. Viral sequencing revealed variants of likely clinical importance, including E484K in 1 woman and three mutations (T95I, del142-144, and D614G) in both. These observations indicate a potential risk of illness after successful vaccination and subsequent infection with variant virus, and they provide support for continued efforts to prevent and diagnose infection and to characterize variants in vaccinated persons. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and others.).