Topic

# Breakup

About: Breakup is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 6456 publications have been published within this topic receiving 153673 citations. The topic is also known as: relationship breakup.

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TL;DR: In this paper, Taylor's experiments on the breakup of a drop in simple types of viscous flow, (b) breakup of an air stream, and (c) emulsification in a turbulent flow are studied.

Abstract: The splitting of globules is an important phenomenon during the final stages of disintegration processes. Three basic types of deformation of globules and six types of flow patterns causing them are distinguished.
The forces controlling deformation and breakup comprise two dimensionless groups: a Weber group NWe and a viscosity group NVi. Breakup occurs when NWe exceeds a critical value (NWe)crit. Three cases are studied in greater detail: (a) Taylor's experiments on the breakup of a drop in simple types of viscous flow, (b) breakup of a drop in an air stream, (c) emulsification in a turbulent flow.
It is shown that (NWe)crit depends on the type of deformation and on the flow pattern around the globule. For case (a) (NWe)crit shows a minimum value ∼ 0.5 at a certain value of (NVi) and seems to increase indefinitely with either decreasing or increasing ratio between the viscosites of the two phases. For case (b) (NWe)crit varies between 13 and ∞, depending on NVi and on the way in which the relative air velocity varies with time, the lowest value refers to the true shock case and Nvi→0. For case (c) (NWe)crit, which determines the maximum drop size in the emulsion, amounts to ∼1, and the corresponding values of NVi appear to be small. A formula is derived for the maximum drop size.

2,013 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors review the theoretical development of this field alongside recent experimental work, and outline unsolved problems, as well as a host of technological applications, ranging from printing to mixing and fiber spinning.

Abstract: Surface-tension-driven flows and, in particular, their tendency to decay spontaneously into drops have long fascinated naturalists, the earliest systematic experiments dating back to the beginning of the 19th century. Linear stability theory governs the onset of breakup and was developed by Rayleigh, Plateau, and Maxwell. However, only recently has attention turned to the nonlinear behavior in the vicinity of the singular point where a drop separates. The increased attention is due to a number of recent and increasingly refined experiments, as well as to a host of technological applications, ranging from printing to mixing and fiber spinning. The description of drop separation becomes possible because jet motion turns out to be effectively governed by one-dimensional equations, which still contain most of the richness of the original dynamics. In addition, an attraction for physicists lies in the fact that the separation singularity is governed by universal scaling laws, which constitute an asymptotic solution of the Navier-Stokes equation before and after breakup. The Navier-Stokes equation is thus continued uniquely through the singularity. At high viscosities, a series of noise-driven instabilities has been observed, which are a nested superposition of singularities of the same universal form. At low viscosities, there is rich scaling behavior in addition to aesthetically pleasing breakup patterns driven by capillary waves. The author reviews the theoretical development of this field alongside recent experimental work, and outlines unsolved problems.

1,563 citations

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TL;DR: A review of the fundamental and technological aspects of these subjects can be found in this article, where the focus is mainly on surface tension effects, which result from the cohesive properties of liquids Paradoxically, cohesive forces promote the breakup of jets, widely encountered in nature, technology and basic science.

Abstract: Jets, ie collimated streams of matter, occur from the microscale up to the large-scale structure of the universe Our focus will be mostly on surface tension effects, which result from the cohesive properties of liquids Paradoxically, cohesive forces promote the breakup of jets, widely encountered in nature, technology and basic science, for example in nuclear fission, DNA sampling, medical diagnostics, sprays, agricultural irrigation and jet engine technology Liquid jets thus serve as a paradigm for free-surface motion, hydrodynamic instability and singularity formation leading to drop breakup In addition to their practical usefulness, jets are an ideal probe for liquid properties, such as surface tension, viscosity or non-Newtonian rheology They also arise from the last but one topology change of liquid masses bursting into sprays Jet dynamics are sensitive to the turbulent or thermal excitation of the fluid, as well as to the surrounding gas or fluid medium The aim of this review is to provide a unified description of the fundamental and the technological aspects of these subjects

1,364 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the dynamics of drop deformation and breakup in viscous flows at low Reynolds numbers are described. And a short discussion is given of the stability of the shapes of translating drops, and the effects of flow and material parameters on the drop size distribution are summarized.

Abstract: This article describes the dynamics of drop deformation and breakup in viscous flows at low Reynolds numbers. An attempt has been made to bring together a wide range of studies in the drop deformation literature, as well as to provide a large number of references to potential applications. In particular, a summary is provided of experimental, numerical, and theoretical investigations that examine drop breakup in externally imposed flows, e.g. uniaxial extensional fluid motion or more complicated time-periodic flows. For well-characterized flow conditions that lead to breakup, the effects of flow and material parameters on the drop size distribution are summarized. Also, a short discussion is given of the stability of the shapes of translating drops. The subject of deformation of neutrally buoyant drops in viscous shear flows at low particle Reynolds numbers was summarized by Acrivos ( 1983) and was reviewed in this series by Rallison ( 1 984). The Acrivos and Rallison papers present (a) theoretical descriptions of steady, nearly spheri cal shapes and steady, long slender shapes, (b) a description of efficient boundary integral numerical methods, and (e) a summary of the experi mental work performed prior to 1984. As documented in these review articles, many of the important ideas necessary for understanding drop

1,069 citations

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TL;DR: Two methods for passively breaking larger drops into precisely controlled daughter drops using pressure-driven flow in simple microfluidic configurations using a T junction and flow past isolated obstacles are demonstrated.

Abstract: Microfluidic technology offers capabilities for the precise handling of small fluid volumes dispersed as droplets. To fully exploit this potential requires simultaneous generation of multiple size droplets. We demonstrate two methods for passively breaking larger drops into precisely controlled daughter drops using pressure-driven flow in simple microfluidic configurations: (i) a T junction and (ii) flow past isolated obstacles. We quantify conditions for breakup at a T junction and illustrate sequential breakup at T junctions for making small drops at high dispersed phase volume fractions.

981 citations