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About: Breakwater is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 3383 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 26894 citation(s).

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Journal ArticleDOI
29 Jan 1972
Abstract: A theory is derived to predict ocean wave reflection and transmission at a permeable breakwater of rectangular cross section. The theory solves for a damped wave component within the breakwater and matches boundary conditions at the windward and leeward breakwater faces to predict the reflected and transmitted wave components. An approximate solution to conventional rubble mound breakwater designs is formulated in terms of an equivalent rectangular breakwater with an additional consideration for wave breaking. Experimental and theoretical results are compared and evaluated.

425 citations

01 Aug 2000
Abstract: Water Waves: Wave Theories and Measurement Short-Term Wave Analysis Long-Term Wave Analysis Wave Generation Predictable Water Level: Tides Seasonal Fluctuations Long-Term Water Level Changes Including Global Climate Change Unpredictable Water Levels: Storm Surge Impulse Waves (Land Slide Generated Waves, Tsunamis) Wave Transformation and Breaking Design of Structures Breakwaters Coastal Management Coastal Sediment Transport Basic Shore Processes Coastal Design and Decision Making Coastal Modeling One-Dimensional Modeling of Coastal Morphology Failure and Resilience Shore Protection Problems.

319 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
02 May 2016-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: The comparison of costs of nature-based defence projects and engineering structures show that salt-marshes and mangroves can be two to five times cheaper than a submerged breakwater for wave heights up to half a metre and, within their limits, become more cost effective at greater depths.
Abstract: There is great interest in the restoration and conservation of coastal habitats for protection from flooding and erosion. This is evidenced by the growing number of analyses and reviews of the effectiveness of habitats as natural defences and increasing funding world-wide for nature-based defences-i.e. restoration projects aimed at coastal protection; yet, there is no synthetic information on what kinds of projects are effective and cost effective for this purpose. This paper addresses two issues critical for designing restoration projects for coastal protection: (i) a synthesis of the costs and benefits of projects designed for coastal protection (nature-based defences) and (ii) analyses of the effectiveness of coastal habitats (natural defences) in reducing wave heights and the biophysical parameters that influence this effectiveness. We (i) analyse data from sixty-nine field measurements in coastal habitats globally and examine measures of effectiveness of mangroves, salt-marshes, coral reefs and seagrass/kelp beds for wave height reduction; (ii) synthesise the costs and coastal protection benefits of fifty-two nature-based defence projects and; (iii) estimate the benefits of each restoration project by combining information on restoration costs with data from nearby field measurements. The analyses of field measurements show that coastal habitats have significant potential for reducing wave heights that varies by habitat and site. In general, coral reefs and salt-marshes have the highest overall potential. Habitat effectiveness is influenced by: a) the ratios of wave height-to-water depth and habitat width-to-wavelength in coral reefs; and b) the ratio of vegetation height-to-water depth in salt-marshes. The comparison of costs of nature-based defence projects and engineering structures show that salt-marshes and mangroves can be two to five times cheaper than a submerged breakwater for wave heights up to half a metre and, within their limits, become more cost effective at greater depths. Nature-based defence projects also report benefits ranging from reductions in storm damage to reductions in coastal structure costs.

270 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Paper describing the development of the "Hudson formula" for the stability of armor on a breakwater.

221 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper summarizes the results of the European Union Marine Science and Technology (EU MAST) III project “Scour Around Coastal Structures” (SCARCOST). The summary is presented under three headings: (1) Introduction; (2) Flow and scour processes with the subheadings: flow and scour processes around vertical cylinders; flow and scour processes at detached breakwaters; flow and scour processes at submerged breakwaters; and the effect of turbulence on sediment transport; and (3) Sediment behaviour close to the structure with the subheadings: field measurement and analysis of wave-induced pore pressures and effective stresses around a bottom seated cylinder; non-linear soil modelling with respect to wave-induced pore pressures and gradients; wave-induced pressures on the bottom for non-linear coastal waves, including also wave kinematics; development of a numerical model (linear soil modelling) to calculate wave-induced pore pressures—the effect of liquefaction on sediment transport; penetration of blocks in non-consolidated fine soil; and cyclic stiffness of loose sand. The paper also includes a discussion of the role of scale effects in laboratory testing and the applicability of the results obtained in supporting engineering design.

166 citations

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