About: Bridging (networking) is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 7532 publications have been published within this topic receiving 74131 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Bailyn et al. as discussed by the authors used semistructured interviews with 38 new-product team managers in high-technotogy companies, log data from two of these teams, and questionnaires completed by members of a different set of AB newproduct teams to generate and test hypotheses about teams' external activities.
Abstract: We thank Lotte Bailyn, Keith Mumighan. Elaine RtMnanelli, the Center for Innovation Management Studies. Bob Sutton, and tfie anonymous reviewers at Administrative Science Quarteriy for their support and comments. This article focuses on the activities teams use to manage their organizational environment beyond their teams. We used semistructured interviews with 38 new-product team managers in high-technotogy companies, log data from two of these teams, and questionnaires completed by members of a different set of AB new-product teams to generate and test hypotheses about teams' external activities. Results indicate that teams engage in vertical communications aimed at molding the views of top management, horizontal communication aimed at coordinating work and obtaining feedback, and horizontal communication aimed at general scanning of the technical and market environment. Organizational teams appear to develop distinct strategies toward their environment: some specialize in particular external activities, some remain isolated from the extemal environment, and others engage in multiple external activities. The paper shows that the type of external communication teams engage in, not just the amount, determines performance. Over time, teams following a comprehensive strategy enter positive cycles of external activity, internal processes, and performance that enable long-term team success.*
TL;DR: It is proposed that a continuous view of rivers is essential for effective research and conservation of fishes and other aquatic biota—a view not just of disjunct reaches but of the entire spatially heterogeneous scene of the river environment, the riverscape, unfolding through time.
Abstract: R and streams, by their very nature long ribbons of aquatic habitat, are inherently difficult to study. Approaching the banks of a flowing-water (lotic) system, one can see only a short fragment of the entire stream, from one bend to another, and can gain little appreciation for important features that lie beyond view. Moreover, materials transported downstream by the flow, and organisms traveling up or down the hydraulic highway, are soon gone from the reach and the opportunity to study them is often lost. Lakes present their own challenges for study, but by contrast to streams, one can usually see large expanses from shore that encompass all major habitats needed for aquatic organisms to complete their life history, such as gravel shoals, beds of aquatic vegetation, and open water habitats. Much of our knowledge of the ecology of rivers and streams is based on observations and experiments on organisms and habitat in the short fragments we can view or quickly traverse on foot, and this limited understanding underpins our efforts at conservation of stream fishes. Here, we argue that this understanding is incomplete, like viewing only disjunct parts of a landscape painting through small holes in a curtain draping it. We propose that a continuous view of rivers is essential for effective research and conservation of their fishes and other aquatic biota—a view not just of disjunct reaches but of the entire spatially heterogeneous scene of the river environment, the riverscape, unfolding through time. One symptom of our incomplete understanding is the alarming rate of decline over the last 50 years of fishes that inhabit rivers and streams of North America. The public is aware that salmon are disappearing from the Pacific Northwest, with about a quarter of the 214 stocks of anadromous salmon and trout imperiled a decade ago (Nehlsen et al. 1991). Even little-known small fishes native to Great Plains and southwestern desert streams have suffered drastic declines (Minckley and Douglas 1991, Fausch and Bestgen 1997), and many are now either protected by federal or state listing as endangered or threatened species or are being considered for such protection. North America harbored the greatest diversity worldwide of temperate freshwater fishes (Warren and Burr 1994), crayfishes (Taylor et al. 1996), and mussels (Williams et al. 1993), but about 30% to 75% of the taxa in each group are at increased risk of extinction (i.e., categorized as rare, threatened, or endangered species). Fishes are also the most imperiled vertebrates worldwide (Allan and Flecker 1993, Leidy and Moyle 1998) and a large proportion spend at least part of their lives in streams.
TL;DR: In this paper, the conditions under which having ties that span organizational boundaries (bridging ties) are conducive to the generation of innovations are studied, and the authors suggest that the advantages traditionally associated with bridging ties are contingent upon the nature of the ties forming the bridge.
Abstract: In this article, we study the conditions under which having ties that span organizational boundaries (bridging ties) are conducive to the generation of innovations. Whereas previous research has shown that bridging ties have a positive impact on innovative performance, our analysis of 276 R&D scientists and engineers reveals that there are no advantages associated with bridging per se. In contrast, our findings suggest that the advantages traditionally associated with bridging ties are contingent upon the nature of the ties forming the bridge—specifically, whether these bridging ties are Simmelian.
TL;DR: In this paper, microscopic evidence is presented in support of an explanation of R-curve behavior in monophase ceramics by grain-localized bridging across the newly formed crack interface.
Abstract: Direct microscopic evidence is presented in support of an explanation of R-curve behavior in monophase ceramics by grain-localized bridging across the newly formed crack interface. In situ observations are made of crack growth in tapered cantilever beam and indented flexure specimens of a coarsegrained alumina. The fractures are observed to be highly stable, typical of a material with a strongly increasing resistance characteristic, but are discontinuous at the microstructural level. Associated with this discontinuity is the appearance of overlapping segments in the surface fracture trace around bridging grains; the mean spacing of such “activity sites” along the trace is about 2 to 5 grain diameters. These segments link up with the primary crack beneath the specimen surface, and continue to evolve toward rupture of the bridge as fracture proceeds. The bridges remain active at large distances, of order 100 grain diameters or more, behind the crack tip. Scanning electron microscopy of some of the bridging sites demonstrates that secondary (interface-adjacent) microfracture and frictional tractions are important elements in the bridge separation process. Evidence is sought, but none found, for some of the more popular alternative models of toughening, notably frontal-zone microcracking and cracktip/internal-stress interaction. It is suggested that the crackinterface bridging mechanism may be a general phenomenon in nontransforming ceramics.
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