About: Briquette is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4233 publications have been published within this topic receiving 26703 citations.
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TL;DR: In this paper, a questionnaire survey of European producers of densified biomass fuels was performed, where the authors evaluated the quality of their products in terms of the following parameters: the dimensions of the fuels, the bulk and the particle density, the water and the ash content, the gross and the net calorific value, the abrasion, the content of starch (as an indication for the use of biological binding agents), the concentrations of C, H, N, S, Cl, K as well as of the heavy metals Cd, Pb, Zn,
Abstract: With respect to the use of densified biomass fuels in fully automatic heating systems for the residential sector a high quality of these fuels is required. Several European countries already have implemented standards for such fuels. In other countries such standards are in preparation or planned. Furthermore, in some countries also standards from associations are existing (e.g. from the Austrian Pellets Association). In addition to these national standards, European standards for solid biomass fuels are under development. For producers of densified biomass fuels, especially for pellet producers, it is therefore very important to produce high-quality fuels keeping the limiting values of the standards addressed. However, in this context it has to be considered that as a high fuel quality as is necessary for the combustion of densified biomass fuels in automatic small-scale furnaces is not necessary if these fuels are used in larger industrial furnaces as they are equipped with more sophisticated flue gas cleaning, combustion and process control systems. Two pellet qualities, one for industrial and one for small-scale consumers seem to be more meaningful. Within the framework of the EU-ALTENER-project “An Integrated European Market for Densified Biomass Fuels (INDEBIF)” a questionnaire survey of European producers of densified biomass fuels was performed. In this connection the possibility was offered to the producers to participate in an analysis programme with their fuels. An overview was obtained of the qualities of densified biomass fuels offered in the European market, covering pellets and briquettes from Austria, Italy, Sweden, Spain, Norway and the Czech Republic. The parameters analysed were the dimensions of the fuels, the bulk and the particle density, the water and the ash content, the gross and the net calorific value, the abrasion, the content of starch (as an indication for the use of biological binding agents), the concentrations of C, H, N, S, Cl, K as well as of the heavy metals Cd, Pb, Zn, Cr, Cu, As and Hg. These parameters have been chosen following the Austrian, German, Swiss and Swedish standards for densified biomass fuels. The results showed that a majority of the participating producers produce fuels of high quality. However, wood pellets of some producers show a high abrasion, one of the most important quality parameters for pellets. An increased amount of fines often causes failures in the feeding systems used in the residential heating sector. In order to decrease abrasion, the addition of small amounts of biological binding agents (e.g. maize or rye) is possible. This kind of additive is most common in Austria. Moreover, some producers obviously use not only chemically untreated raw materials or additives, which increase the content of pollutants. Such fuels cause problems regarding emissions, deposit formation and corrosion. Emission problems are expected due to increased contents of N, Cl, S as well as heavy metals. Increased concentrations of heavy metals additionally contaminate the ash, increased Cl concentrations raise the risk of corrosion. Moreover, an increased content of K has a negative effect on the ash melting behaviour and causes higher aerosol formation, which enhances deposit formation and particulate emissions.
TL;DR: In this paper, the suitability of different densification systems for biomass feedstocks and the impact these systems have on specific energy consumption and end-product quality are discussed, and the quality of the densified biomass for both domestic and international markets is evaluated using PFI (United States standard) or CEN (European standard).
Abstract: Developing uniformly formatted, densified feedstock from lignocellulosic biomass is of interest to achieve consistent physical properties such as size and shape, bulk and unit density, and durability, which significantly influence storage, transportation and handling characteristics, and, by extension, feedstock cost and quality. A variety of densification systems are considered for producing a uniform format feedstock commodity for bioenergy applications, including (i) pellet mill, (ii) cuber, (iii) screw extruder, (iv) briquette press, (v) roller press, (vi) tablet press, and (vii) agglomerator. Each of these systems has varying impacts on feedstock chemical and physical properties, and energy consumption. This review discusses the suitability of these densification systems for biomass feedstocks and the impact these systems have on specific energy consumption and end-product quality. For example, a briquette press is more flexible in terms of feedstock variables where higher moisture content and larger particles are acceptable for making good quality briquettes; or among different densification systems, a screw press consumes the most energy because it not only compresses but also shears and mixes the material. Pre-treatment options like pre-heating, grinding, steam explosion, torrefaction, and ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) can also help to reduce specific energy consumption during densification and improve binding characteristics. Binding behavior can also be improved by adding natural binders, such as proteins, or commercial binders, such as lignosulfonates. The quality of the densified biomass for both domestic and international markets is evaluated using PFI (United States standard) or CEN (European standard). Published in 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd Re-use of this article is permitted in accordance with the Terms and Conditions set out at http://wileyonlinelibrary.com/onlineopen#OnlineOpen_Terms
TL;DR: In this paper, a piston-and-mold (punch and die) process was used to produce densified logs (slugs) under room temperature and at pressures ranging from 34 to 138 MPa.
Abstract: High-pressure binderless compaction of wood processing residues and other biomass waste materials, including hardwood, softwood, and bark in the forms of sawdust, mulches, and chips, were studied. A piston-and-mold (punch-and-die) process was used to produce densified logs (slugs) under room temperature and at pressures ranging from 34 to 138 MPa. The properties of the logs including density, abrasion resistance, impact resistance, compressive strength, water resistance, and long-term performance were tested. The effects of moisture content, compaction pressure, compaction speed, pressure holding time, particle size and particle shape were studied. It was found that the necessary moisture for producing good-quality logs ranges from 5 to 12% for all the woody materials studied, and the optimum moisture content is in the neighborhood of 8%. It was also found that mulch is the easiest form to be compacted into dense and strong logs, sawdust is the second, and chips the last. For the mulches, a compaction pressure of 70 MPa can produce high-quality logs. For sawdust, a minimum pressure of 100 MPa is needed to form good logs. And for chips, no good logs can be made even at pressure as high as 138 MPa. The logs produced under optimal conditions had dry densities near or higher than 1 g / cm 3 . Such high density facilitates storage, handling and transportation of biomass. The dense logs also have high-energy content per unit volume, making it easier to be co-fired with coal in power plants.
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors show that for some biomass species, the yield of carbon produced by this process effectively attains the theoretical value predicted to exist when thermochemical equilibrium is realized.
Abstract: Previous work has shown that very high yields of charcoal are obtained when pyrolysis of the biomass feedstock is conducted at elevated pressure in a closed vessel, wherein the pyrolytic vapors are held captive and in contact with the solid products of pyrolysis In this paper, we show that, for some biomass species, the yield of carbon produced by this process effectively attains the theoretical value predicted to exist when thermochemical equilibrium is realized Various agricultural wastes (eg, kukui nut, macadamia nut, and pecan shells) and tropical species (eg, eucalyptus, leucaena, and bamboo) offer higher yields of carbon than the hardwoods traditionally employed by industry in the US and Europe Moreover, the yields of carbon from oat and rice hulls and from sunflower seed hulls are nearly as high as the yields of carbon from hardwoods There is a correlation between the yield of carbon and the acid-insoluble lignin content of the feed Charcoal briquettes made from agricultural wastes and lump charcoal from tropical species are promising sources of renewable carbon for use in the smelting of metal ores
TL;DR: Ch chopped corn stover samples were compacted in a piston cylinder under three pressure levels and at three moisture content levels to produce briquettes, resulting in denser, more stable and more durable briquette than high moisture stover.
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