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Brittleness

About: Brittleness is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 20939 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 461437 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Brittle.
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Book ChapterDOI
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter describes the mixed mode cracking in layered materials. There is ample experimental evidence that cracks in brittle, isotropic, homogeneous materials propagate such that pure mode I conditions are maintained at the crack tip. An unloaded crack subsequently subject to a combination of modes I and II will initiate growth by kinking in such a direction that the advancing tip is in mode I. The chapter also elaborates some of the basic results on the characterization of crack tip fields and on the specification of interface toughness. The competition between crack advance within the interface and kinking out of the interface depends on the relative toughness of the interface to that of the adjoining material. The interface stress intensity factors play precisely the same role as their counterparts in elastic fracture mechanics for homogeneous, isotropic solids. When an interface between a bimaterial system is actually a very thin layer of a third phase, the details of the cracking morphology in the thin interface layer can also play a role in determining the mixed mode toughness. The elasticity solutions for cracks in multilayers are also elaborated.

3,629 citations



Book
24 Sep 1993-
Abstract: This is an advanced text for higher degree materials science students and researchers concerned with the strength of highly brittle covalent–ionic solids, principally ceramics. It is a reconstructed and greatly expanded edition of a book first published in 1975. The book presents a unified continuum, microstructural and atomistic treatment of modern day fracture mechanics from a materials perspective. Particular attention is directed to the basic elements of bonding and microstructure that govern the intrinsic toughness of ceramics. These elements hold the key to the future of ceramics as high-technology materials - to make brittle solids strong, we must first understand what makes them weak. The underlying theme of the book is the fundamental Griffith energy-balance concept of crack propagation. The early chapters develop fracture mechanics from the traditional continuum perspective, with attention to linear and nonlinear crack-tip fields, equilibrium and non-equilibrium crack states. It then describes the atomic structure of sharp cracks, the topical subject of crack-microstructure interactions in ceramics, with special focus on the concepts of crack-tip shielding and crack-resistance curves, and finally deals with indentation fracture, flaws, and structural reliability.

3,465 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
15 Feb 2001-Nature
TL;DR: A structural polymeric material with the ability to autonomically heal cracks is reported, which incorporates a microencapsulated healing agent that is released upon crack intrusion and polymerization of the healing agent is triggered by contact with an embedded catalyst, bonding the crack faces.
Abstract: Structural polymers are susceptible to damage in the form of cracks, which form deep within the structure where detection is difficult and repair is almost impossible. Cracking leads to mechanical degradation of fibre-reinforced polymer composites; in microelectronic polymeric components it can also lead to electrical failure. Microcracking induced by thermal and mechanical fatigue is also a long-standing problem in polymer adhesives. Regardless of the application, once cracks have formed within polymeric materials, the integrity of the structure is significantly compromised. Experiments exploring the concept of self-repair have been previously reported, but the only successful crack-healing methods that have been reported so far require some form of manual intervention. Here we report a structural polymeric material with the ability to autonomically heal cracks. The material incorporates a microencapsulated healing agent that is released upon crack intrusion. Polymerization of the healing agent is then triggered by contact with an embedded catalyst, bonding the crack faces. Our fracture experiments yield as much as 75% recovery in toughness, and we expect that our approach will be applicable to other brittle materials systems (including ceramics and glasses).

3,290 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: T ensile tests at a variety of temperatures have been carried out on composites consisting of tungsten or molybdenum wires, uniaxially aligned in a copper matrix. Both continuous and discontinuous wires have been used, and both brittle and ductile tungsten wires. It is found that the breaking strength is a linear function of the wire content. A simple theory to explain this is developed and auxiliary experiments to check the theory are described. Some simple predictions about the behaviour of fibre reinforced metals are made from the results.

2,035 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202256
2021866
2020903
2019861
2018799
2017757

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Brian R. Lawn

84 papers, 10.4K citations

Alberto Carpinteri

71 papers, 2.4K citations

Majid R. Ayatollahi

30 papers, 963 citations

D. P. H. Hasselman

26 papers, 1.7K citations

Erland M. Schulson

24 papers, 1.3K citations