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Broaching

About: Broaching is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3129 publications have been published within this topic receiving 11686 citations.


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Book
01 Jun 1984
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the kind of causes and causes of failure of a particular kind of gear using a variety of metrics, such as the number of Pinion Teeth, the amount of bearing failures, and the ratio of bearing failure rate.
Abstract: Foreword, Preface Gear-Design Trends Manufacturing Trends Small, Low-Cost Gears for Toys, Gadgets and Mechanisms Appliance Gears Machine Tools Control Gears Vehicle Gears Transportation Gears Marine Gears Aerospace Gears Industrial Gearing Gears in the Oil and Gas Industry Mill Gears Selection of the Right Kind of Gear External Spur Gears External Helical Gears Internal Gears Straight Bevel Gears Zerol Bevel Gears Spiral Bevel Gears Hypoid Gears Face Gears Crossed-Helical Gears (Nonenveloping Worm Gears) Single-Enveloping Worm Gears Double-Enveloping Worm Gears Spiroid Gears Preliminary Design Considerations Stress Formulas Calculated Stresses Gear-Design Limits Gear-Strength Calculations Gear Surface-Durability Calculations Gear Scoring Thermal Limits Preliminary Estimate of Gear Size Gear Specifications Size of Spur and Helical Gears by Q-Factor Method Indexes of Tooth Loading Estimating Spur- and Helical-Gear Size by K-Factor Estimating Bevel-Gear Size Estimating Worm-Gear Size Estimating Spiroid-Gear Size Data Needed for Gear Drawings Gear Dimensional Data Gear-Tooth Tolerances Gear Material and Heat Treat Data Enclosed Gear Unit Requirements Design Formulas Calculations of Gear-Tooth Data Number of Pinion Teeth Hunting Teeth Spur-Gear-Tooth Proportions Root Filler Radii of Curvature Long-Addendum Pinions Tooth Thickness Chordal Dimensions Degrees Roll and Limit Diameter Form Diameter and Contact Ratio Spur-Gear Dimension Sheet Internal-Gear Dimension Sheet Helical-Gear Tooth Proportions Helical-Gear Dimension Sheet Bevel-Gear Tooth Proportions Straight-Bevel-Gear Dimension Sheet Spiral-Bevel-Gear Dimension Sheet Zerol-Bevel-Gear Dimension Sheet Hypoid-Gear Calculations Face Gear Calculations Crossed-Helical-Gear Proportions Single-Enveloping-Worm-Gear Proportions Single-Enveloping Worm Gears Double-Enveloping Worm Gears Gear-Rating Practice General Considerations in Rating Calculations General Formulas for Tooth Bending Strength and Tooth Surface Durability Geometry Factors for Strength Overall Derating Factor for Strength Geometry Factors for Durability Overall Derating Factor for Surface Durability Load Rating of Worm Gearing Design Formulas for Scoring Trade Standards for Rating Gears Vehicle Gear-Rating Practice Marine Gear-Rating Practices Aerospace Gear-Rating Practices Gear Materials Steels for Gears Mechanical Properties Heat-Treating Techniques Heat-Treating Data Hardness Tests Localized Hardening of Gear Teeth Carburizing Nitriding Induction Hardening of Steel Flame Hardening of Steel Combined Heat Treatments Metallurgical Quality of Steel Gears Cast Irons for Gears Gray Cast Iron Ductile Iron Sintered Iron Nonferrous Gear Metals Kinds of Bronze Standard Gear Bronzes Nonmetallic Gears Thermosetting Laminates Nylon Gears Gear-Manufacturing Methods Gear-Tooth Cutting Gear Hobbing Shaping-Pinion Cutter Shaping-Rack Cutter Cutting Bevel Gears Gear Milling Broaching Gears Punching Gears G-TRAC Generating Gear Grinding Form Grinding Generating Grinding-Disc Wheel Generating Grinding-Bevel Gears Generating Grinding-Threaded Wheel Thread Grinding Gear Shaving, Rolling, and Honing Rotary Shaving Rack Shaving Gear Rolling Gear Honing Gear Measurement Gear Accuracy Measurements Machines to Measure Gears Gear Casting and Forming Cast and Molded Gears Sintered Gears Cold-Drawn Gears and Rolled Worm Threads Design of Tools to Make Gear Teeth Shaper Cutters Gear Hobs Spur-Gear Milling Cutters Worm Milling Cutters and Grinding Wheels Gear-Shaving Cutters Punching Tools Sintering Tools The Kinds and Causes of Gear Failures Analysis of Gear-System Problems Determining the Problem Possible Causes of Gear-System Failures Incompatibility of Gear Systems Investigation of Gear Systems Analysis of Tooth Failures and Gear Bearing Failures Nomenclature of Gear Failure Tooth Breakage Pitting of Gear Teeth Scoring Failures Wear Failures Gearbox Bearings Rolling-Element Bearings Sliding-Element Bearings Some Causes of Gear Failure Other than Excess Transmitted Load Overload Gear Failures Gear Casing Problems Lubrication Failures Thermal Problems in Fast-Running Gears Special Design Problems Center Distance Problems Profile Modification Problems Load Rating Problem Appendix Material Introduction to Gears Dynamic Load Theory Highest and Lowest Points of Single-Tooth Contact Layout of Large Circles by Calculation Special Calculations for Spur Gears Special Calculation for Internal Gears Special Calculation for Helical Gears Summary Sheets for Bevel Gears Complete AGMA and ISO Formulas for Bending Strength and Surface Durability Profile Modification Calculation Procedure The Basics of Gear-Tooth Measurement for Accuracy and Size Shaper-Cutter Tooth Thickness General Method for Determining Tooth Thicknesses when Helical Gears Are Operated on Spread Centers Calculation of Geometry Factor for Scoring References, Index 186 tables, 291 figures HUNDREDS OF ILLUSTRATIONS Almost 300 diagrams and other schematics, photographs and micrographs clearly illustrate gear designs, gearsets and assemblies, and applications. Here is a small sampling of these illustrations. Tractor power train Partially assembled double-reduction marine gear unit Two-stage epicyclic gear, close-coupled to a high-speed gas turbine Spur-gear and rack terminology Helical-gear and rack terminology Internal gear terminology Hypoid-gear arrangement Terminology of cone-drive worm gears Dimensions used in scoring-factor calculation Eight kinds of gear arrangements for spur or helical gears Standard drawing format for spiral bevel gears Calculation of bevel-gear body dimensions Worm-gear design examples Machine induction-hardening of large internal gear Metallurgical examples, nitrided gears (micrographs) Phenolic laminated gear with a steel hub ... Comparison of form grinding and generating grinding Operating principles of single-die gear-rolling machine Outline of methods for making gear teeth ALMOST 200 TABLES A wealth of data is economically provided in the many tables in this text. Here is a small sampling of this reference material. Gear Terms, Symbols and Units Scoring Calculation Methods Ratio Factors for Single-Reduction Gears Nominal Capacity of Double-Enveloping Worm Gearing Typical AGMA Gear Tolerances for Quality Numbers 9-13 Spur-Gear Proportions Tolerances on Tooth Thickness Spur-Gear Dimensions Helical-Gear Basic Tooth Data Indexes of Tooth Loading for Preliminary Design Calculations Straight-Bevel-Gear Dimensions Load-Stress Factors for Crossed-Helical Gears Nominal Lubricant Properties Composition of Typical Gear Steels Hardness-Testing Apparatus and Applications for Gears Some Examples of Production Time for Hobbing or Milling Gear Teeth Checklist (for) Investigating Gear Failures

311 citations

Book
02 Apr 2012
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the kind of causes and causes of failure of a particular kind of gear using a variety of metrics, such as the number of Pinion Teeth, the amount of bearing failures, and the ratio of bearing failure rate.
Abstract: Foreword, Preface Gear-Design Trends Manufacturing Trends Small, Low-Cost Gears for Toys, Gadgets and Mechanisms Appliance Gears Machine Tools Control Gears Vehicle Gears Transportation Gears Marine Gears Aerospace Gears Industrial Gearing Gears in the Oil and Gas Industry Mill Gears Selection of the Right Kind of Gear External Spur Gears External Helical Gears Internal Gears Straight Bevel Gears Zerol Bevel Gears Spiral Bevel Gears Hypoid Gears Face Gears Crossed-Helical Gears (Nonenveloping Worm Gears) Single-Enveloping Worm Gears Double-Enveloping Worm Gears Spiroid Gears Preliminary Design Considerations Stress Formulas Calculated Stresses Gear-Design Limits Gear-Strength Calculations Gear Surface-Durability Calculations Gear Scoring Thermal Limits Preliminary Estimate of Gear Size Gear Specifications Size of Spur and Helical Gears by Q-Factor Method Indexes of Tooth Loading Estimating Spur- and Helical-Gear Size by K-Factor Estimating Bevel-Gear Size Estimating Worm-Gear Size Estimating Spiroid-Gear Size Data Needed for Gear Drawings Gear Dimensional Data Gear-Tooth Tolerances Gear Material and Heat Treat Data Enclosed Gear Unit Requirements Design Formulas Calculations of Gear-Tooth Data Number of Pinion Teeth Hunting Teeth Spur-Gear-Tooth Proportions Root Filler Radii of Curvature Long-Addendum Pinions Tooth Thickness Chordal Dimensions Degrees Roll and Limit Diameter Form Diameter and Contact Ratio Spur-Gear Dimension Sheet Internal-Gear Dimension Sheet Helical-Gear Tooth Proportions Helical-Gear Dimension Sheet Bevel-Gear Tooth Proportions Straight-Bevel-Gear Dimension Sheet Spiral-Bevel-Gear Dimension Sheet Zerol-Bevel-Gear Dimension Sheet Hypoid-Gear Calculations Face Gear Calculations Crossed-Helical-Gear Proportions Single-Enveloping-Worm-Gear Proportions Single-Enveloping Worm Gears Double-Enveloping Worm Gears Gear-Rating Practice General Considerations in Rating Calculations General Formulas for Tooth Bending Strength and Tooth Surface Durability Geometry Factors for Strength Overall Derating Factor for Strength Geometry Factors for Durability Overall Derating Factor for Surface Durability Load Rating of Worm Gearing Design Formulas for Scoring Trade Standards for Rating Gears Vehicle Gear-Rating Practice Marine Gear-Rating Practices Aerospace Gear-Rating Practices Gear Materials Steels for Gears Mechanical Properties Heat-Treating Techniques Heat-Treating Data Hardness Tests Localized Hardening of Gear Teeth Carburizing Nitriding Induction Hardening of Steel Flame Hardening of Steel Combined Heat Treatments Metallurgical Quality of Steel Gears Cast Irons for Gears Gray Cast Iron Ductile Iron Sintered Iron Nonferrous Gear Metals Kinds of Bronze Standard Gear Bronzes Nonmetallic Gears Thermosetting Laminates Nylon Gears Gear-Manufacturing Methods Gear-Tooth Cutting Gear Hobbing Shaping-Pinion Cutter Shaping-Rack Cutter Cutting Bevel Gears Gear Milling Broaching Gears Punching Gears G-TRAC Generating Gear Grinding Form Grinding Generating Grinding-Disc Wheel Generating Grinding-Bevel Gears Generating Grinding-Threaded Wheel Thread Grinding Gear Shaving, Rolling, and Honing Rotary Shaving Rack Shaving Gear Rolling Gear Honing Gear Measurement Gear Accuracy Measurements Machines to Measure Gears Gear Casting and Forming Cast and Molded Gears Sintered Gears Cold-Drawn Gears and Rolled Worm Threads Design of Tools to Make Gear Teeth Shaper Cutters Gear Hobs Spur-Gear Milling Cutters Worm Milling Cutters and Grinding Wheels Gear-Shaving Cutters Punching Tools Sintering Tools The Kinds and Causes of Gear Failures Analysis of Gear-System Problems Determining the Problem Possible Causes of Gear-System Failures Incompatibility of Gear Systems Investigation of Gear Systems Analysis of Tooth Failures and Gear Bearing Failures Nomenclature of Gear Failure Tooth Breakage Pitting of Gear Teeth Scoring Failures Wear Failures Gearbox Bearings Rolling-Element Bearings Sliding-Element Bearings Some Causes of Gear Failure Other than Excess Transmitted Load Overload Gear Failures Gear Casing Problems Lubrication Failures Thermal Problems in Fast-Running Gears Special Design Problems Center Distance Problems Profile Modification Problems Load Rating Problem Appendix Material Introduction to Gears Dynamic Load Theory Highest and Lowest Points of Single-Tooth Contact Layout of Large Circles by Calculation Special Calculations for Spur Gears Special Calculation for Internal Gears Special Calculation for Helical Gears Summary Sheets for Bevel Gears Complete AGMA and ISO Formulas for Bending Strength and Surface Durability Profile Modification Calculation Procedure The Basics of Gear-Tooth Measurement for Accuracy and Size Shaper-Cutter Tooth Thickness General Method for Determining Tooth Thicknesses when Helical Gears Are Operated on Spread Centers Calculation of Geometry Factor for Scoring References, Index 186 tables, 291 figures HUNDREDS OF ILLUSTRATIONS Almost 300 diagrams and other schematics, photographs and micrographs clearly illustrate gear designs, gearsets and assemblies, and applications. Here is a small sampling of these illustrations. Tractor power train Partially assembled double-reduction marine gear unit Two-stage epicyclic gear, close-coupled to a high-speed gas turbine Spur-gear and rack terminology Helical-gear and rack terminology Internal gear terminology Hypoid-gear arrangement Terminology of cone-drive worm gears Dimensions used in scoring-factor calculation Eight kinds of gear arrangements for spur or helical gears Standard drawing format for spiral bevel gears Calculation of bevel-gear body dimensions Worm-gear design examples Machine induction-hardening of large internal gear Metallurgical examples, nitrided gears (micrographs) Phenolic laminated gear with a steel hub ... Comparison of form grinding and generating grinding Operating principles of single-die gear-rolling machine Outline of methods for making gear teeth ALMOST 200 TABLES A wealth of data is economically provided in the many tables in this text. Here is a small sampling of this reference material. Gear Terms, Symbols and Units Scoring Calculation Methods Ratio Factors for Single-Reduction Gears Nominal Capacity of Double-Enveloping Worm Gearing Typical AGMA Gear Tolerances for Quality Numbers 9-13 Spur-Gear Proportions Tolerances on Tooth Thickness Spur-Gear Dimensions Helical-Gear Basic Tooth Data Indexes of Tooth Loading for Preliminary Design Calculations Straight-Bevel-Gear Dimensions Load-Stress Factors for Crossed-Helical Gears Nominal Lubricant Properties Composition of Typical Gear Steels Hardness-Testing Apparatus and Applications for Gears Some Examples of Production Time for Hobbing or Milling Gear Teeth Checklist (for) Investigating Gear Failures

180 citations

Patent
20 May 2003
TL;DR: In this article, the femoral neck resector is inserted into the intramedullary femoral broach to align the two instruments and a femoral resector guide is used to determine the height and angular rotation of resection.
Abstract: An intramedullary femoral broach aligns two instruments. A femoral neck resector guide slides over the broach and centers on the patient's femoral head to determine the height and angular rotation of resection. A circular ring of the head and cutting arms assure the system will fit any femur. A template is applied to the femoral broach and seats itself against the buttress of the broach locking it into place. The broach is then reinserted into the intramedullary canal. When the template reaches the greater trochanter the sizer is adjusted to the rotational anteversion of the canal. The handle of the femoral broach is struck with a mallet until the template is imbedded into the proximal femoral neck intramedullary bone. A retractor facilitates reaming of the acetabulum through a small anterior incision. A proximal portion digs into the bone of the superior acetabulum to allow for retraction of soft tissues.

149 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Turning, milling, drilling, and broaching of hard materials are described in this paper, with high accuracy and accuracy to size, dispensing with the need for finish grinding.

146 citations

Patent
15 Dec 2009
TL;DR: In this paper, a method for cutting a triangular cavity in bone is described, which comprises a providing a shaft step, an incising step and a cutting step, and the cutting step includes cutting the cavity by drinking the broach by moving the shaft relative to the bone.
Abstract: A broaching system is disclosed for creating a cavity in a bone such that the cavity has a cross section which has a generally triangular profile having a first side generally parallel with an axis of the bone and a second side forming an acute angle with the first side and such that the cavity is contiguous with a pre-existing conical cavity in the bone. The apparatus comprises a shaft and a broach. The shaft has a longitudinal axis. The broach is mounted to the shaft and has a first cutting side mounted at the acute angle relative to the longitudinal axis of the shaft. The first cutting side is formed to include teeth. The shaft and broach are configured so that when the longitudinal axis of the shaft is advanced into the bone along the axis of the bone, the teeth of the broach form the triangular cavity. A method for cutting a triangular cavity in bone is also described. The method comprises a providing a shaft step, an incising step and a cutting step. The provided shaft is configured to be movable relative to the bone to be prepared and includes a broach coupled thereto to dispose a cutting surface of the broach at an acute angle relative to the shaft. The shaft and broach have a width defined by the distance between the shaft and the outer most portion of the cutting surface. The incising step includes incising the patient adjacent the bone to be prepared to form an incision having a length approximation the width of shaft and broach. The cutting step includes cutting the cavity by drinking the broach by moving the shaft relative to the bone.

126 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202321
202257
202129
202098
2019150
2018213