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Bronchitis

About: Bronchitis is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 5919 publications have been published within this topic receiving 182081 citations. The topic is also known as: chest cold & recurrent wheezy bronchitis.


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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors estimated the impact of outdoor and traffic-related air pollution on public health in Austria, France, and Switzerland, and found that air pollution contributes to mortality and morbidity.
Abstract: Background: Air pollution contributes to mortality and morbidity. We estimated the impact of outdoor (total) and traffic-related air pollution on public health in Austria, France, and Switzerland. Attributable cases of morbidity and mortality were estimated. Methods: Epidemiology-based exposure-response functions for a 10 μg/m3 increase in particulate matter (PM10) were used to quantify the effects of air pollution. Cases attributable to air pollution were estimated for mortality (adults \textgreater30 years), respiratory and cardiovascular hospital admissions (all ages), incidence of chronic bronchitis (adults \textgreater25 years), bronchitis episodes in children (\textless15 years), restricted activity days (adults \textgreater20 years), and asthma attacks in adults and children. Population exposure (PM10) was modelled for each km2. The traffic-related fraction was estimated based on PM10 emission inventories. Findings: Air pollution caused 6% of total mortality or more than 40 000 attributable cases per year. About half of all mortality caused by air pollution was attributed to motorised traffic, accounting also for: more than 25 000 new cases of chronic bronchitis (adults); more than 290 000 episodes of bronchitis (children); more than 0·5 million asthma attacks; and more than 16 million person-days of restricted activities. Interpretation: This assessment estimates the public-health impacts of current patterns of air pollution. Although individual health risks of air pollution are relatively small, the public-health consequences are considerable. Traffic-related air pollution remains a key target for public-health action in Europe. Our results, which have also been used for economic valuation, should guide decisions on the assessment of environmental health-policy options.

1,581 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The impact of outdoor (total) and traffic-related air pollution on public health in Austria, France, and Switzerland and the results should guide decisions on the assessment of environmental health-policy options are guided.

1,507 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The aim of this study was to quantify the global prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease by means of a systematic review and random effects meta-analysis and population-based prevalence estimates published during the period 1990–2004.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to quantify the global prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by means of a systematic review and random effects meta-analysis. PubMed was searched for population-based prevalence estimates published during the period 1990-2004. Articles were included if they: 1) provided total population or sex-specific estimates for COPD, chronic bronchitis and/or emphysema; and 2) gave method details sufficiently clearly to establish the sampling strategy, approach to diagnosis and diagnostic criteria. Of 67 accepted articles, 62 unique entries yielded 101 overall prevalence estimates from 28 different counties. The pooled prevalence of COPD was 7.6% from 37 studies, of chronic bronchitis alone (38 studies) was 6.4% and of emphysema alone (eight studies) was 1.8%. The pooled prevalence from 26 spirometric estimates was 8.9%. The most common spirometric definitions used were those of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (13 estimates). There was significant heterogeneity, which was incompletely explained by subgroup analysis (e.g. age and smoking status). The prevalence of physiologically defined chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults aged > or =40 yrs is approximately 9-10%. There are important regional gaps, and methodological differences hinder interpretation of the available data. The efforts of the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease and similar groups should help to standardise chronic obstructive pulmonary disease prevalence measurement.

1,416 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
21 Sep 1991-BMJ
TL;DR: Lower birth weight was associated with worse adult lung function and death from chronic obstructive airways disease in adult life, and promoting lung growth in fetuses and infants and reducing the incidence of lower respiratory tract infection in infancy may reduce the incidence in the next generation.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE--To examine whether birth weight, infant weight, and childhood respiratory infection are associated with adult lung function and death from chronic obstructive airways disease. DESIGN--Follow up study of men born during 1911-30 whose birth weights, weights at 1 year, and childhood illnesses were recorded at the time by health visitors. SETTING--Hertfordshire, England. SUBJECTS--5718 men born in the county during 1911-30 and a subgroup of 825 men born in the county during 1920-30 and still living there. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Death from chronic obstructive airways disease, mean forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC), and respiratory symptoms. RESULTS--55 men died of chronic obstructive airways disease. Death rates fell with increasing birth weight and weight at 1 year. Mean FEV1 at age 59 to 70 years, adjusted for height and age, rose by 0.06 litre (95% confidence interval 0.02 to 0.09) with each pound (450 g) increase in birth weight, independently of smoking habit and social class. Bronchitis or pneumonia in infancy was associated with a 0.17 litre (0.02 to 0.32) reduction in adult FEV1 and with an increased odds ratio of wheezing and persistent sputum production in adult life independently of birth weight, smoking habit, and social class. Whooping cough in infancy was associated with a 0.22 litre (0.02 to 0.42) reduction in adult FEV1. CONCLUSIONS--Lower birth weight was associated with worse adult lung function. Intrauterine influences which retard fetal weight gain may irrecoverably constrain the growth of the airways. Bronchitis, pneumonia, or whooping cough in infancy further reduced adult lung function. They also retarded infant weight gain. Consistent with this, death from chronic obstructive airways disease in adult life was associated with lower birth weight and weight at 1 year. Promoting lung growth in fetuses and infants and reducing the incidence of lower respiratory tract infection in infancy may reduce the incidence of chronic obstructive airways disease in the next generation.

858 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is concluded that specific genetic syndromes and occupational exposures were causally related to the development of COPD and a substantive burden of COPd is attributable to risk factors other than smoking.
Abstract: Rationale: Although cigarette smoking is the most important cause of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a substantial proportion of COPD cases cannot be explained by smoking alone. Objectives: To evaluate the risk factors for COPD besides personal cigarette smoking. Methods: We constituted an ad hoc subcommittee of the American Thoracic Society Environmental and Occupational Health Assembly. An international group of members was invited, based on their scientific expertise in a specific risk factor for COPD. For each risk factor area, the committee reviewed the literature, summarized the evidence, and developed conclusions about the likelihood of it causing COPD. All conclusions were based on unanimous consensus. Measurements and Main Results: The population-attributable fraction for smoking as a cause of COPD ranged from 9.7 to 97.9%, but was less than 80% in most studies, indicating a substantial burden of disease attributable to nonsmoking risk factors. On the basis of our review, we concluded that specific genetic syndromes and occupational exposures were causally related to the development of COPD. Traffic and other outdoor pollution, secondhand smoke, biomass smoke, and dietary factors are associated with COPD, but sufficient criteria for causation were not met. Chronic asthma and tuberculosis are associated with irreversible loss of lung function, but there remains uncertainty about whether there are important phenotypic differences compared with COPD as it is typically encountered in clinical settings. Conclusions: In public health terms, a substantive burden of COPD is attributable to risk factors other than smoking. To prevent COPD-related disability and mortality, efforts must focus on prevention and cessation of exposure to smoking and these other, less well-recognized risk factors.

836 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023116
2022257
202194
2020134
201993
2018102