About: Bulinus truncatus is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 414 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 5640 citation(s).
Papers published on a yearly basis
University of Montpellier1, Institut national de la recherche agronomique2, Natural History Museum3, Royal Museum for Central Africa4, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven5, University of Valencia6, Spanish National Research Council7, University of Corsica Pascal Paoli8, University of Toulouse9, Institut de veille sanitaire10
TL;DR: The molecular data suggest that the parasites were imported into Corsica by individuals infected in west Africa, specifically Senegal, and hybridisation between S haematobium and the cattle schistosome S bovis had a putative role in this outbreak.
Abstract: Summary Background Schistosomiasis is a snail-borne parasitic disease endemic in several tropical and subtropical countries. However, in the summer of 2013, an unexpected outbreak of urogenital schistosomiasis occurred in Corsica, with more than 120 local people or tourists infected. We used a multidisciplinary approach to investigate the epidemiology of urogenital schistosomiasis in Corsica, aiming to elucidate the origin of the outbreak. Methods We did parasitological and malacological surveys at nine potential sites of infection. With the snails found, we carried out snail–parasite compatibility experiments by exposing snails to schistosome larvae recovered from the urine of a locally infected Corsican patient. Genetic analysis of both mitochondrial ( cox1 ) and nuclear (internal transcribed spacer) DNA data from the Schistosoma eggs or miracidia recovered from the infected patients was conducted to elucidate the epidemiology of this outbreak. Findings We identified two main infection foci along the Cavu River, with many Bulinus truncatus snails found in both locations. Of the 3544 snails recovered across all sites, none were naturally infected, but laboratory-based experimental infections confirmed their compatibility with the schistosomes isolated from patients. Molecular characterisation of 73 eggs or miracidia isolated from 12 patients showed infection with Schistosoma haematobium, S haematobium–Schistosoma bovis hybrids, and S bovis . Further sequence data analysis also showed that the Corsican schistosomes were closely related to those from Senegal in west Africa. Interpretation The freshwater swimming pools of the Cavu River harbour many B truncatus snails, which are capable of transmitting S haematobium -group schistosomes. Our molecular data suggest that the parasites were imported into Corsica by individuals infected in west Africa, specifically Senegal. Hybridisation between S haematobium and the cattle schistosome S bovis had a putative role in this outbreak, showing how easily and rapidly urogenital schistosomiasis can be introduced and spread into novel areas where Bulinus snails are endemic, and how hybridisation could increase the colonisation potential of schistosomes. Furthermore our results show the potential risk of schistosomiasis outbreaks in other European areas, warranting close monitoring and surveillance of all potential transmission foci. Funding WHO, ANSES, RICET, and the Ministry of Health and Consumption.
Abstract: Schistosomiasis is a disease of great medical and veterinary importance in tropical and subtropical regions, caused by parasitic flatworms of the genus Schistosoma (subclass Digenea). Following major water development schemes in the 1980s, schistosomiasis has become an important parasitic disease of children living in the Senegal River Basin (SRB). During molecular parasitological surveys, nuclear and mitochondrial markers revealed unexpected natural interactions between a bovine and human Schistosoma species: S. bovis and S. haematobium, respectively. Hybrid schistosomes recovered from the urine and faeces of children and the intermediate snail hosts of both parental species, Bulinus truncatus and B. globosus, presented a nuclear ITS rRNA sequence identical to S. haematobium, while the partial mitochondrial cox1 sequence was identified as S. bovis. Molecular data suggest that the hybrids are not 1st generation and are a result of parental and/or hybrid backcrosses, indicating a stable hybrid zone. Larval stages with the reverse genetic profile were also found and are suggested to be F1 progeny. The data provide indisputable evidence for the occurrence of bidirectional introgressive hybridization between a bovine and a human Schistosoma species. Hybrid species have been found infecting B. truncatus, a snail species that is now very abundant throughout the SRB. The recent increase in urinary schistosomiasis in the villages along the SRB could therefore be a direct effect of the increased transmission through B. truncatus. Hybridization between schistosomes under laboratory conditions has been shown to result in heterosis (higher fecundity, faster maturation time, wider intermediate host spectrum), having important implications on disease prevalence, pathology and treatment. If this new hybrid exhibits the same hybrid vigour, it could develop into an emerging pathogen, necessitating further control strategies in zones where both parental species overlap.
TL;DR: The morphology and ultrastructure of the blood cells of the freshwater snails Lymnaea stagnalis, Biomphalaria glabrata, and Bulinus truncatus were studied and special attention was paid to the role of theBlood cells in phagocytosis of foreign particles.
Abstract: The morphology and ultrastructure of the blood cells of the freshwater snails Lymnaea stagnalis, Biomphalaria glabrata, and Bulinus truncatus were studied. By performing in vitro experiments and enzyme histochemical studies, special attention was paid to the role of the blood cells in phagocytosis of foreign particles. No fundamental differences were found in the ultrastructure, lysosomal enzyme contents, and phagocytic capacities of the blood cells of these species. It is concluded that only one type of blood cell, the amoebocyte, exists in the freshwater snails. Amoebocytes constitute a morphologically and functionally heterogeneous population of cells, ranging from round (electron-dense) cells with the morphological characteristics of young cells to highly phagocytic spreading cells with a prominent lysosomal system. In addition to acid phosphatase, nonspecific esterase and peroxidase were found within the lysosomes. The presence of enzyme activity in the RER and the Golgi bodies indicates that amoebocytes are able to synthesize lysosomal enzymes continuously.
TL;DR: This study reports on the toxic activity of extracts from Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) against snails transmitting Schistosoma mansoni and S. mansoni, and suggests this plant could become an affordable and effective component of an integrated approach to schistosomiasis control.
Abstract: Summary The aim of studies on plant molluscicides is to complement methods for controlling snails acting as intermediate hosts of schistosomes. We report on the toxic activity of extracts from Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) against snails transmitting Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium. We studied different extracts' effects on infectious larvae, cercariae and miracidia of S. mansoni. Compared to aqueous extract, methanol extract showed the highest toxicity against all tested organisms with LC100-values of 25 p.p.m. for cercariae and the snail Biomphalaria glabrata and 1 p.p.m. for the snails Bulinus truncatus and B. natalensis. Attenuation of cercariae leading to reduced infectivity in mice could be achieved in concentrations below those exerting acute toxicity. In view of our results and the ongoing exploitation of J. curcas for other purposes, this plant could become an affordable and effective component of an integrated approach to schistosomiasis control.
TL;DR: Examination of the consequences of selfing and bottlenecks on genetic polymorphism using microsatellite markers in 14 natural populations of the hermaphrodite freshwater snail Bulinus truncatus revealed an unexpectedly high levels of genetic variation.
Abstract: Hermaphrodite tropical freshwater snails provide a good opportunity to study the effects of mating system and genetic drift on population genetic structure because they are self-fertile and they occupy transient patchily distributed habitats (ponds). Up to now the lack of detectable allozyme polymorphism prevented any intrapopulation studies. In this paper, we examine the consequences of selfing and bottlenecks on genetic polymorphism using microsatellite markers in 14 natural populations (under a hierarchical sampling design) of the hermaphrodite freshwater snail Bulinus truncatus. These population genetics data allowed us to discuss the currently available mutation models for microsatellite sequences. Microsatellite markers revealed an unexpectedly high levels of genetic variation with <=41 alleles for one locus and gene diversity of 0.20-0.75 among populations. The values of any estimator of F(is) indicate high selfing rates in all populations. Linkage disequilibria observed at all loci for some populations may also indicate high levels of inbreeding. The large extent of genetic differentiation measured by F(st), R(st) or by a test for homogeneity between genic distributions is explained by both selfing and bottlenecks. Despite a limited gene flow, migration events could be detected when comparing different populations within ponds.