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Bulk micromachining

About: Bulk micromachining is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1404 publications have been published within this topic receiving 26516 citations.

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01 Jan 2002
TL;DR: In this paper, a comparison of top-down and bottom-up manufacturing methods for micro-manufacturing is presented, with a focus on the use of micro-processors.
Abstract: LITHOGRAPHY Introduction Historical Note: Lithography's Origins Photolithography Overview Critical Dimension, Overall Resolution, Line-Width Lithographic Sensitivity and Intrinsic Resist Sensitivity (Photochemical Quantum Efficiency) Resist Profiles Contrast and Experimental Determination of Lithographic Sensitivity Resolution in Photolithography Photolithography Resolution Enhancement Technology Beyond Moore's Law Next Generation Lithographies Emerging Lithography Technologies PATTERN TRANSFER WITH DRY ETCHING TECHNIQUES Introduction Dry Etching: Definitions and Jargon Plasmas or Discharges Physical Etching: Ion Etching or Sputtering and Ion-Beam Milling Plasma Etching (Radical Etching) Physical/Chemical Etching PATTERN TRANSFER WITH ADDITIVE TECHNIQUES Introduction Silicon Growth Doping of Si Oxidation of Silicon Physical Vapor Deposition Chemical Vapor Deposition Silk-Screening or Screen-Printing Sol-Gel Deposition Technique Doctors' Blade or Tape Casting Plasma Spraying Deposition and Arraying Methods of Organic Layers in BIOMEMS Thin versus Thick Film Deposition Selection Criteria for Deposition Method WET BULK MICROMACHINING Introduction Historical Note Silicon Crystallography Silicon As Substrate Silicon As A Mechanical Element In MEMS Wet Isotropic And Anisotropic Etching Alignment Patterns Chemical Etching Models Etching With Bias And/Or Illumination Of The Semiconductor Etch-Stop Techniques Problems With Wet Bulk Micromachining SURFACE MICROMACHINING Introduction Historical Note Mechanical Properties of Thin Films Surface Micromachining Processes Poly-Si Surface Micromachining Modifications Non-Poly-Si Surface Micromachining Modifications Materials Case Studies LIGA AND MICROMOLDING Introduction LIGA-Background LIGA and LIGA-Like Process Steps A COMPARISON OF MINIATURIZATION TECHNIQUES: TOP-DOWN AND BOTTOM-UP MANUFACTURING Introduction Absolute and Relative Tolerance in Manufacturing Historical Note: Human Manufacturing Section I: Top-Down Manufacturing Methods Section II: Bottom-Up Approaches MODELING, BRAINS, PACKAGING, SAMPLE PREPARATION AND NEW MEMS MATERIALS Introduction Modeling Brains In Miniaturization Packaging Substrate Choice SCALING, ACTUATORS, AND POWER IN MINIATURIZED SYSTEMS Introduction Scaling Actuators Fluidics Scaling In Analytical Separation Equipment Other Actuators Integrated Power MINIATURIZATION APPLICATIONS Introduction Definitions and Classification Method Decision Three OVERALL MARKET For MICROMACHINES Introduction Why Use Miniaturization Technology ? From Perception to Realization Overall MEMS Market Size MEMS Market Character MEMS Based on Si Non-Silicon MEMS MEMS versus Traditional Precision Engineering The Times are a'Changing APPENDICES Metrology Techniques WWW Linkpage Etch Rate for Si, SiO2 Summary of Top-Down Miniaturization Tools Listing of names of 20 amino acids & their chemical formulas Genetic code Summary of Materials and Their Properties for Microfabrication References for Detailed Market Information on Miniature Devices MEMS Companies Update Suggested Further Reading Glossary Symbols used in Text INDEX Each chapter also contains sections of examples and problems

1,930 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 1998
TL;DR: In this article, the available etching methods fall into three categories in terms of the state of the etchant: wet, vapor, and plasma, and they are reviewed and compared by comparing the results, cost, complexity, process compatibility, and other factors.
Abstract: Bulk silicon etching techniques, used to selectively remove silicon from substrates, have been broadly applied in the fabrication of micromachined sensors, actuators, and structures. Despite the more recent emergence of higher resolution, surface-micromachining approaches, the majority of currently shipping silicon sensors are made using bulk etching. Particularly in light of newly introduced dry etching methods compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductors, it is unlikely that bulk micromachining will decrease in popularity in the near future. The available etching methods fall into three categories in terms of the state of the etchant: wet, vapor, and plasma. For each category, the available processes are reviewed and compared in terms of etch results, cost, complexity, process compatibility, and a number of other factors. In addition, several example micromachined structures are presented.

780 citations

01 Sep 1987
TL;DR: An overview of microelectronic fabrication can be found in this paper, where the authors provide a historical perspective on the development and evolution of many of the technologies used in the fabrication process.
Abstract: (NOTE: Each chapter concludes with Summary, References, and Problems) Preface 1 An Overview of Microelectronic Fabrication A Historical Perspective An Overview of Monolithic Fabrication Processes and Structures Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) Processes Basic Bipolar Processing Safety 2 Lithography The Photolithographic Process Etching Techniques Photomask Fabrication Exposure Systems Exposure Sources Optical and Electron Microscopy Further Reading 3 Thermal Oxidation of Silicon The Oxidation Process Modeling Oxidation Factors Influencing Oxidation Rate Dopant Redistribution During Oxidation Masking Properties of Silicon Dioxide Technology of Oxidation Oxide Quality Selective Oxidation and Shallow Trench Formation Oxide Thickness Characterization Process Simulation 4 Diffusion The Diffusion Process Mathematical Model for Diffusion The Diffusion Coefficient Successive Diffusions Solid-Solubility Limits Junction Formation and Characterization Sheet Resistance Generation-Depth and Impurity Profile Measurement Diffusion Simulation Diffusion Systems Gettering 5 Ion Implantation Implantation Technology Mathematical Model for Ion Implantation Selective Implantation Junction Depth and Sheet Resistance Channeling, Lattice Damage, and Annealing Shallow Implantation Source Listing 6 Film Deposition Evaporation Sputtering Chemical Vapor Deposition Epitaxy Further Reading 7 Interconnections and Contacts Interconnections in Integrated Circuits Metal Interconnections and Contact Technology Diffused Interconnections Polysilicon Interconnections and Buried Contacts Silicides and Multilayer-Contact Technology The Liftoff Process Multilevel Metallization Copper Interconnects and Damascene Processes Further Reading 8 Packaging and Yield Testing Wafer Thinning and Die Separation Die Attachment Wire Bonding Packages Flip-Chip and Tape-Automated-Bonding Processes Yield Further Reading 9 MOS Process Integration Basic MOS Device Considerations MOS Transistor Layout and Design Rules Complementary MOS (CMOS) Technology Silicon on Insulator 10 Bipolar Process Integration The Junction-Isolated Structure Current Gain Transit Time Basewidth Breakdown Voltages Other Elements in SBC Technology Layout Considerations Advanced Bipolar Structures Other Bipolar Isolation Techniques BICMOS 11 Processes for Microelectromechanical Systems-MEMS Mechanical Properties of Silicon Bulk Micromachining Silicon Etchants Surface Micromachining High-Aspect-Ratio Micromachining: The LIGA Molding Process Silicon Wafer Bonding IC Process Compatibility Answers to Selected Problems Index

721 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 1998
TL;DR: Surface micromachining is characterized by the fabrication of micromechanical structures from deposited thin films as discussed by the authors, which typically requires that they be freed from the planar substrate.
Abstract: Surface micromachining is characterized by the fabrication of micromechanical structures from deposited thin films. Originally employed for integrated circuits, films composed of materials such as low-pressure chemical-vapor-deposition polycrystalline silicon, silicon nitride, and silicon dioxides can be sequentially deposited and selectively removed to build or "machine" three-dimensional structures whose functionality typically requires that they be freed from the planar substrate. Although the process to accomplish this fabrication dates from the 1960's, its rapid extension over the past few years and its application to batch fabrication of micromechanisms and of monolithic microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) make a thorough review of surface micromachining appropriate at this time. Four central issues of consequence to the MEMS technologist are: (i) the understanding and control of the material properties of microstructural films, such as polycrystalline silicon, (ii) the release of the microstructure, for example, by wet etching silicon dioxide sacrificial films, followed by its drying and surface passivation, (iii) the constraints defined by the combination of micromachining and integrated-circuit technologies when fabricating monolithic sensor devices, and (iv) the methods, materials, and practices used when packaging the completed device. Last, recent developments of hinged structures for postrelease assembly, high-aspect-ratio fabrication of molded parts from deposited thin films, and the advent of deep anisotropic silicon etching hold promise to extend markedly the capabilities of surface-micromachining technologies.

663 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, surface micromachining is used to fabricate beams, plates, sealed cavities, and linear and rotary bearings, with an emphasis on polysilicon microstructures.
Abstract: Micromechanical structures can be made by selectively etching sacrificial layers from a multilayer sandwich of patterned thin films. This paper reviews this technology, termed surface micromachining, with an emphasis on polysilicon microstructures. Micromechanical characteristics of thin‐film microstructures critically depend on the average residual stress in the film, as well as on the stress variation in the direction of deposition. The stress in low‐pressure chemical vapor deposition polysilicon varies with deposition temperature, doping, and annealing cycles. Applications of surface micromachining to fabricate beams, plates, sealed cavities, and linear and rotary bearings are discussed.

279 citations

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