About: Bulk polymerization is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 8512 publications have been published within this topic receiving 179234 citations. The topic is also known as: mass polymerization.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: In this paper, free radical polymerization was used to obtain polystyrene and poly(styrene-co-butadiene) with narrow polydispersity (1.19-1.36) in the presence of 2,2,6, 6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy using benzoyl peroxide as initiator
Abstract: Polystyrene and poly(styrene-co-butadiene) with narrow polydispersity (1.19-1.36) could be obtained by free radical polymerization in solution, bulk or suspension in the presence of 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy using benzoyl peroxide as initiator
TL;DR: The atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene and acrylates from silicon wafers modified with an initiator layer composed of 2-bromoisobutyrate fragments is described in this paper.
Abstract: The atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene and acrylates from silicon wafers modified with an initiator layer composed of 2-bromoisobutyrate fragments is described. In the presence of the proper ratio of activating and deactivating transition-metal species, controlled radical polymerizations of styrene were observed such that the thickness of the layer consisting of chains grown from the surface increased linearly with the molecular weight of chains polymerized in solution in identical, yet separate, experiments. The layer thickness increased linearly with reaction time for ATRP of styrene and methyl acrylate due to both the extremely low initiator concentration relative to monomer and the low monomer conversion. Further evidence for control was observed by the polymerization of blocks of either methyl or tert-butyl acrylate from the polystyrene layer. Modification of the hydrophilicity of the surface layer was achieved by hydrolysis of the poly(styrene-b-tert-butyl acrylate) to poly(styre...
TL;DR: The homogeneous atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene using solubilizing 4,4'dialkyl substituted 2,2'bipyridines yielded well-defined polymers with Mw/Mn ≤ 1.10 as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The homogeneous atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene using solubilizing 4,4‘-dialkyl substituted 2,2‘-bipyridines yielded well-defined polymers with Mw/Mn ≤ 1.10. The polymerizations exhibited an increase in molecular weight in direct proportion to the ratio of the monomer consumed to the initial initiator concentration and also exhibited internal first-order kinetics with respect to monomer concentration. The optimum ratio of ligand-to-copper(I) halide for these polymerizations was found to be 2:1, which tentatively indicates that the coordination sphere of the active copper(I) center contains two bipyridine ligands. The exclusive role for this copper(I) complex in ATRP is atom transfer, since at typical concentrations that occur for these polymerizations (≈10-7−10-8 M), polymeric radicals were found not to react with the copper(I) center in any manner that enhanced or detracted from the observed control. ATRP also exhibited first-order kinetics with respect to both initiator and copper...
TL;DR: In this paper, the effect of substituents R of dithiobenzoate RAFT agents [SC(Ph)S−R] on the outcome of polymerizations of styrene, methyl methacrylate (MMA), and butyl (BA) or methyl acrylate(MA).
Abstract: Radical polymerization with reversible addition−fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT polymerization) can be used to synthesize a wide range of polymers of controlled architecture and narrow molecular weight distribution. The polymerizations use addition−fragmentation chain transfer agents (RAFT agents) that possess high transfer coefficients in free radical polymerization and confer living character on the polymerization. This paper explores the effect of the substituents R of dithiobenzoate RAFT agents [SC(Ph)S−R] on the outcome of polymerizations of styrene, methyl methacrylate (MMA) and butyl (BA) or methyl acrylate (MA). In MMA polymerization at 60 °C, effectiveness depends strongly on R decreasing in the order where R is: −C(Alkyl)2CN ∼ −C(Me)2Ar > −C(Me)2C(O)O(alkyl) > −C(Me)2C(O)NH(alkyl) > −C(Me)2CH2C(Me)3 ≥ −C(Me)HPh > −C(Me)3 ∼ −CH2Ph. Of these, only the compounds with R = −C(Me)2Ph and −C(Me)2CN provided polymers with substantially narrowed polydispersities in batch polymerization and gave molec...