Topic

# Busbar

About: Busbar is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 8580 publications have been published within this topic receiving 38567 citations. The topic is also known as: bus bar.

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TL;DR: This letter presents an improved backward/ forward sweep algorithm for three-phase load-flow analysis of radial distribution systems and shows that the algorithm is accurate and computationally efficient in comparing with two other commonly used methods.

Abstract: This letter presents an improved backward/ forward sweep algorithm for three-phase load-flow analysis of radial distribution systems. In the backward sweep, Kirchhoff's Current Law and Kirchhoff's Voltage Law are used to calculate the upstream bus voltage of each line or a transformer branch. Then, the linear proportional principle is adopted to find the ratios of the real and imaginary components of the specified voltage to those of the calculated voltage at the substation bus. In the forward sweep, the voltage at each downstream bus is then updated by the real and imaginary components of the calculated bus voltage multiplying with the corresponding ratio. The procedure stops after the mismatch of the calculated and the specified voltages at the substation is less than a convergence tolerance. The proposed algorithm is tested with three IEEE benchmark distribution systems. Results show that the algorithm is accurate and computationally efficient in comparing with two other commonly used methods

291 citations

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20 Sep 2001

TL;DR: In this article, the internal busbars interior from the perimeter are disclosed which lower the conductivity of the conductive layer of an electrochromic device, and signals supplied to the busbars are controlled by a switching power supply.

Abstract: Edge busbars on a substantial perimeter of an electrochromic device are disclosed having electrical paths wrapping over the perimeter edge. Internal busbars interior from the perimeter are disclosed which lower the conductivity of the conductive layer of an electrochromic device. Signals supplied to the busbars to control the electrochromic device are controlled by a switching power supply that allows the maintaining of the color of the electrochromic device without application of continuous power.

279 citations

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01 Sep 1989TL;DR: In this article, a 7 kW voltage-sourced reversible rectifier (VSRR) which achieves bidirectional power flow between a single-phase AC supply and a DC busbar voltage is described.

Abstract: A 7 kW voltage-sourced reversible rectifier (VSRR) which achieves bidirectional power flow between a single-phase AC supply and a DC busbar voltage is described. A current-forced control (CFC) strategy is used to switch two power transistors, enabling the device to operate with a unity power factor and a sinusoidal line current to produce a regulated DC busbar voltage. The advantages of the scheme are its simplicity, an extremely fast and well damped response and its adaptive nature to nonlinear effects such as transistor switching delays. The device operates with a DC busbar voltage which is greater than the peak-to-peak voltage of the utility supply so that it is especially suitable for use as a source of power in a variable-speed AC induction-motor drive.

242 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated to what extent EMI caused by power electronic devices in hard switching inverter topologies can be minimized using ultra-low inductive planar busbars.

Abstract: Ten years after the publication of the EC Directive 89/336 on electromagnetic compatibility, the impact of this directive on design and lay-out of modern electrical and electronic equipment can be observed. Many research and development studies have proposed and evaluated detailed improvements in the area of component design, component selection, circuit lay-out, shielding and active and passive filtering. New and innovative solutions to minimize noise, especially common mode conducted electromagnetic interference (EMI), in power electronic circuits continue to be developed. In this paper, the authors investigate to what extent EMI caused by power electronic devices in hard switching inverter topologies can be minimized using ultra-low inductive planar busbars. The concept followed in this study is to tackle EMI directly at the source where most EMI is generated; in other words, to reduce the parasitic magnetic energy stored in the inverter DC link to reduce high voltage spikes during switching. A planar busbar was built, tested and analyzed. Measurements show the validity of the theoretical, but simple, design procedure for planar busbars in power converters.

227 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, an effective method for suppressing PCB radiation from their power bus over an ultrawide range of frequencies by using metallo-dielectric electromagnetic band-gap structures was introduced.

Abstract: As digital circuits become faster and more powerful, direct radiation from the power bus of their printed circuit boards (PCB) becomes a major concern for electromagnetic compatibility engineers. In such multilayer PCBs, the power and ground planes act as radiating microstrip patch antennas, where radiation is caused by fringing electric fields at board edges. In this paper, we introduce an effective method for suppressing PCB radiation from their power bus over an ultrawide range of frequencies by using metallo-dielectric electromagnetic band-gap structures. More specifically, this study focuses on the suppression of radiation from parallel-plate bus structures in high-speed PCBs caused by switching noise, such as simultaneous switching noise, also known as Delta-I noise or ground bounce. This noise consists of unwanted voltage fluctuations on the power bus of a PCB due to resonance of the parallel-plate waveguiding system created by the power bus planes. The techniques introduced here are not limited to the suppression of switching noise and can be extended to any wave propagation between the plates of the power bus. Laboratory PCB prototypes were fabricated and tested revealing appreciable suppression of radiated noise over specific frequency bands of interest, thus, testifying to the effectiveness of this concept.

225 citations