About: Cadmium is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 29550 publications have been published within this topic receiving 698657 citations. The topic is also known as: element 48 & Cd.
Papers published on a yearly basis
01 Apr 1990
TL;DR: In this article, the origin of heavy metals in soils is discussed, and methods of analysis for heavy metal analysis in soils are presented, as well as the potential environment significance of less abundant elements.
Abstract: General principles. Introduction. Soil processes and the behaviour of heavy metals. The origin of heavy metals in soils. Methods of analysis for heavy metals in soils. Individual elements. Arsenic. Cadmium. Chromium and nickel. Copper. Lead. Maganese and cobalt. Mercury. Selenium. Zinc. Other less abundant elements of potential environment significance. Appendices.
TL;DR: In this article, the range of heavy metals, their occurrence and toxicity for plants, and their effects on the ecosystem is discussed, where the authors focus mainly on zinc, cadmium, copper, mercury, chromium, lead, arsenic, cobalt, nickel, manganese and iron.
Abstract: Metal contamination issues are becoming increasingly common in India and elsewhere, with many documented cases of metal toxicity in mining industries, foundries, smelters, coal-burning power plants and agriculture. Heavy metals, such as cadmium, copper, lead, chromium and mercury are major environmental pollutants, particularly in areas with high anthropogenic pressure. Heavy metal accumulation in soils is of concern in agricultural production due to the adverse effects on food safety and marketability, crop growth due to phytotoxicity, and environmental health of soil organisms. The influence of plants and their metabolic activities affects the geological and biological redistribution of heavy metals through pollution of the air, water and soil. This article details the range of heavy metals, their occurrence and toxicity for plants. Metal toxicity has high impact and relevance to plants and consequently it affects the ecosystem, where the plants form an integral component. Plants growing in metal-polluted sites exhibit altered metabolism, growth reduction, lower biomass production and metal accumulation. Various physiological and biochemical processes in plants are affected by metals. The contemporary investigations into toxicity and tolerance in metal-stressed plants are prompted by the growing metal pollution in the environment. A few metals, including copper, manganese, cobalt, zinc and chromium are, however, essential to plant metabolism in trace amounts. It is only when metals are present in bioavailable forms and at excessive levels, they have the potential to become toxic to plants. This review focuses mainly on zinc, cadmium, copper, mercury, chromium, lead, arsenic, cobalt, nickel, manganese and iron.
TL;DR: It is proposed that, above all in response to acute cadmium stress, various mechanisms might operate both in an additive and in a potentiating way, and a holistic and integrated approach seems to be necessary in the study of the response of higher plants to Cadmium.
Abstract: The paper summarizes present knowledge in the field of higher plant responses to cadmium, an important environmental pollutant. The principal mechanisms reviewed here include phytochelatin-based sequestration and compartmentalization processes, as well as additional defense mechanisms, based on cell wall immobilization, plasma membrane exclusion, stress proteins, stress ethylene, peroxidases, metallothioneins, etc. An analysis of data taken from the international literature has been carried out, in order to highlight possible ‘qualitative’ and ‘quantitative’ differences in the response of wild-type (non-tolerant) plants to chronic and acute cadmium stress. The dose-response relationships indicate that plant response to low and high cadmium level exposures is a very complex phenomenon indeed: cadmium evokes a number of parallel and/or consecutive events at molecular, physiological and morphological levels. We propose that, above all in response to acute cadmium stress, various mechanisms might operate both in an additive and in a potentiating way. Thus, a holistic and integrated approach seems to be necessary in the study of the response of higher plants to cadmium. This multi-component model, which we would call ‘fan-shaped’ response, may accord with the Selyean ‘general adaptation syndrome’ hypothesis. While cadmium detoxification is a complex phenomenon, probably under polygenic control, cadmium ‘real’ tolerance—found in mine plants or in plant systems artificially grown under long-term selection pressure, exposed to high levels of cadmium—seems to be a simpler phenomenon, possibly involving only monogenic/oligogenic control. We conclude that, following a ‘pyramidal’ model, (adaptive) tolerance is supported by (constitutive) detoxification mechanisms, which in turn rely on (constitutive) homeostatic processes. The shift between homeostasis and ‘fan-shaped’ response can be rapid and involve quick changes in (poly)gene expression. Differently, the slow shift from ‘fan-shaped’ response to ‘real’ cadmium tolerance is caused and affected by long-term selection pressure, which may increase the frequency (and promote the expression) of one or a few tolerance gene(s).
TL;DR: The present results indicate that mycorrhization stimulated the phenolic defence system in the Paxillus-Pinus mycorRhizal symbiosis and Plants in certain mycor rhizal associations are less sensitive to cadmium stress than non-mycorrhizal plants.
Abstract: The aim of this review is to assess the mode of action and role of antioxidants as protection from heavy metal stress in roots, mycorrhizal fungi and mycorrhizae. Based on their chemical and physical properties three different molecular mechanisms of heavy metal toxicity can be distinguished: (a) production of reactive oxygen species by autoxidation and Fenton reaction; this reaction is typical for transition metals such as iron or copper, (b) blocking of essential functional groups in biomolecules, this reaction has mainly been reported for non-redox-reactive heavy metals such as cadmium and mercury, (c) displacement of essential metal ions from biomolecules; the latter reaction occurs with different kinds of heavy metals. Transition metals cause oxidative injury in plant tissue, but a literature survey did not provide evidence that this stress could be alleviated by increased levels of antioxidative systems. The reason may be that transition metals initiate hydroxyl radical production, which can not be controlled by antioxidants. Exposure of plants to non-redox reactive metals also resulted in oxidative stress as indicated by lipid peroxidation, H(2)O(2) accumulation, and an oxidative burst. Cadmium and some other metals caused a transient depletion of GSH and an inhibition of antioxidative enzymes, especially of glutathione reductase. Assessment of antioxidative capacities by metabolic modelling suggested that the reported diminution of antioxidants was sufficient to cause H(2)O(2) accumulation. The depletion of GSH is apparently a critical step in cadmium sensitivity since plants with improved capacities for GSH synthesis displayed higher Cd tolerance. Available data suggest that cadmium, when not detoxified rapidly enough, may trigger, via the disturbance of the redox control of the cell, a sequence of reactions leading to growth inhibition, stimulation of secondary metabolism, lignification, and finally cell death. This view is in contrast to the idea that cadmium results in unspecific necrosis. Plants in certain mycorrhizal associations are less sensitive to cadmium stress than non-mycorrhizal plants. Data about antioxidative systems in mycorrhizal fungi in pure culture and in symbiosis are scarce. The present results indicate that mycorrhization stimulated the phenolic defence system in the Paxillus-Pinus mycorrhizal symbiosis. Cadmium-induced changes in mycorrhizal roots were absent or smaller than those in non-mycorrhizal roots. These observations suggest that although changes in rhizospheric conditions were perceived by the root part of the symbiosis, the typical Cd-induced stress responses of phenolics were buffered. It is not known whether mycorrhization protected roots from Cd-induced injury by preventing access of cadmium to sensitive extra- or intracellular sites, or by excreted or intrinsic metal-chelators, or by other defence systems. It is possible that mycorrhizal fungi provide protection via GSH since higher concentrations of this thiol were found in pure cultures of the fungi than in bare roots. The development of stress-tolerant plant-mycorrhizal associations may be a promising new strategy for phytoremediation and soil amelioration measures.
TL;DR: It can be anticipated that a considerable proportion of the non-smoking adult population has urinary cadmium concentrations of 0.5 microg/g creatinine or higher in non-exposed areas, and for smokers this proportion is considerably higher, which implies no margin of safety between the point of departure and the exposure levels in the general population.
Abstract: Cadmium is a toxic metal occurring in the environment naturally and as a pollutant emanating from industrial and agricultural sources. Food is the main source of cadmium intake in the non-smoking population. The bioavailability, retention and toxicity are affected by several factors including nutritional status such as low iron status. Cadmium is efficiently retained in the kidney (half-time 10-30 years) and the concentration is proportional to that in urine (U-Cd). Cadmium is nephrotoxic, initially causing kidney tubular damage. Cadmium can also cause bone damage, either via a direct effect on bone tissue or indirectly as a result of renal dysfunction. After prolonged and/or high exposure the tubular injury may progress to glomerular damage with decreased glomerular filtration rate, and eventually to renal failure. Furthermore, recent data also suggest increased cancer risks and increased mortality in environmentally exposed populations. Dose-response assessment using a variety of early markers of kidney damage has identified U-Cd points of departure for early kidney effects between 0.5 and 3 microg Cd/g creatinine, similar to the points of departure for effects on bone. It can be anticipated that a considerable proportion of the non-smoking adult population has urinary cadmium concentrations of 0.5 microg/g creatinine or higher in non-exposed areas. For smokers this proportion is considerably higher. This implies no margin of safety between the point of departure and the exposure levels in the general population. Therefore, measures should be put in place to reduce exposure to a minimum, and the tolerably daily intake should be set in accordance with recent findings.
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