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Cadmium chloride

About: Cadmium chloride is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 3060 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 63113 citation(s). The topic is also known as: CdCl2 & [CdCl2].
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Journal ArticleDOI
05 Jan 2006-Toxicology Letters
TL;DR: Different sensitivity was observed for each assay with the neutral red and the MTT assay being the most sensitive in detecting cytotoxic events compared to the LDH leakage and the protein assay.
Abstract: The aim of this study was to compare four in vitro cytotoxicity assays and determine their ability to detect early cytotoxic events. Two hepatoma cell lines, namely HTC and HepG2 cells, were exposed to cadmium chloride (0-300 microM) for 3, 5 and 8 h. Following exposure to the toxic metal cytotoxicity was determined with the lactate dehydrogenase leakage assay (LDH), a protein assay, the neutral red assay and the methyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay. In HTC cells no toxicity was observed for any incubation period when the LDH leakage, the MTT and the protein assay were employed whereas the neutral red assay revealed early cytotoxicity starting after incubation of HTC cells with CdCl(2) for 3 h. In the case of HepG2 cells the MTT assay reveals cytotoxicity due to CdCl(2) exposure after 3 h whereas no such effect is seen with the other three assays. Following 5 h exposure of HepG2 cells to CdCl(2), toxicity is observed with the MTT assay at lower concentrations compared to the ones required for detection of toxicity with the LDH leakage and the neutral red assay. In conclusion different sensitivity was observed for each assay with the neutral red and the MTT assay being the most sensitive in detecting cytotoxic events compared to the LDH leakage and the protein assay.

1,177 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Investigation of the potential protective effects of vitamin E and beta-carotene alone or in combination against cadmium (Cd) toxicity demonstrated the beneficial influences ofitamin E, -carotenes alone and/or in combination in reducing the harmful effects of CdCl2.
Abstract: Cadmium is a well-known human carcinogen and a potent nephrotoxin. Lipid peroxidation is involved in cadmium-related toxicity. Vitamin E and beta-carotene are effective antioxidants and free radical scavengers. Therefore, the present study was carried out to investigate the potential protective effects of vitamin E and beta-carotene alone or in combination against cadmium (Cd) toxicity. Cadmium chloride (CdCl2, 5 mg/kg BW, 1/15 LD50), vitamin E (100 mg/kg BW), beta-carotene (10 mg/kg BW), and vitamin E with beta-carotene (100 + 10 mg/kg BW, respectively) were orally administered by gavage alone or in combination. The tested doses were given to rats every other day (15 times). Results obtained showed that CdCl2 significantly (P < 0.05) induced free radicals in plasma, liver and brain. The activities of glutathione S-transferase (GST) (plasma and liver), alkaline phosphatase (AlP) (plasma and liver), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (liver) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) (plasma and brain) were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased due to CdCl2 administration, whereas, the activities of AST and ALT were increased in plasma. Treatment with CdCl2 caused a significant (P < 0.05) increase in glucose, urea, creatinine and bilirubin in plasma. On the other hand, results showed that CdCl2 significantly (P < 0.05) decreased plasma total protein (TP), albumin (A), blood hemoglobin (Hb), total erythrocytic count (TEC) and packed cell volume (PCV), while total leukocyte count (TLC) increased. Treatment with CdCl2 caused a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in sperm concentration, motility (%), weight of testes and epididymis, and increase in dead and abnormal sperm. Results demonstrated the beneficial influences of vitamin E, -carotene alone and/or in combination in reducing the harmful effects of CdCl2.

470 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 May 1978-Gastroenterology
TL;DR: The intestinal adaptive response to iron deficiency in both experimental animals and human subjects leads to the increased absorption of cadmium, a potentially toxic element.
Abstract: In mice fed a low iron diet, the addition of low levels of cadmium chloride (10 μm) to the drinking water impaired growth and accentuated the development of anemia. Cadmium had no effect on mice given a similar diet supplemented with iron. Iron deficiency increased the concentration of cadmium in the duodenal mucosa, the transfer of cadmium to the body from the intestinal tract, and the deposition of absorbed cadmium in the kidneys. In human subjects, the average absorption of 25 μg of cadmium, labeled with 115m Cd, from a test meal was 8.9 ± 2.0% (mean ± se) in 10 people with low body iron stores (serum ferritin 23 ng per ml). The biological half-time of the radiocadmium in 3 of the subjects ranged from 93 to 202 days. Thus, the intestinal adaptive response to iron deficiency in both experimental animals and human subjects leads to the increased absorption of cadmium, a potentially toxic element.

369 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A single sc injection of cadmium salts in male rats and mice destroyed germinative function of testis permanently and endocrine function temporarily and completely prevented testicular degeneration and castration phenomena.
Abstract: A single sc injection of cadmium salts in male rats and mice destroyed germinative function of testis permanently and endocrine function temporarily. Rats received .02 mmol per kg cadmium chloride or lactate in .02 M solution. Within 6 hours the testes became edematous swollen and red or purple. In 48 hours the tubular epithelium and interstitia were destroyed showing hemorrhage thrombosis and inflammation. After 10 days the central testis remained necrotic but fibroblasts blood vessels and Leydig cells began to appear. Castration phemomena i.e. pituitary histology and weight loss in seminal vessicles and prostate accompanied testicular degeneration. Ch ronic testosterone propionate 200 mcg on alternate days from Days 10-24 after cadmium maintained weight of accessory organs. 52 days later accessory organs but not pituitary began to recover. 80 100 or 200 times the cadmium equimolar dose of zinc acetate (3.33 and 4.8 mmol zinc in 3 divided doses .032 and .04 mmol cadmium) completely prevented testicular degeneration and castration phenomena. The mode of action of cadmium is unknown but possibilities were discussed.

362 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The findings indicate that tissue glutathione-dependent enzymes as well as other antioxidant enzymes function in protection against Cd2+ toxicity and that these antioxidants provide a first line of defense against C d2+ before the induction of any metallothionein synthesis occurs.
Abstract: Antioxidant defenses consisting of catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), xanthine oxidase (XOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), and glutathione S-transferase were estimated in liver and kidney of freshwater fish subjected to a sublethal concentration of cadmium chloride (Cd2+), i.e., 5 ppm. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of antioxidant defenses during cadmium-induced oxidative stress. Significant elevations in liver and kidney of all of the above detoxification enzymes were evident from the 7th day onward, were maintained until the 15th day, and then decreased slightly on the 30th day of exposure to cadmium stress. Between the two tissues studied, liver recorded higher activity for all enzymes except GPX, which was elevated significantly in kidney (82.85%). Both liver and kidney recorded more or less similar increases of SOD (86.61% and 86.32%, respectively), and XOD (86.41% and 84.19%, respectively). The findings indicate that tissue glutathione-dependent enzymes as well as other antioxidant enzymes function in protection against Cd2+ toxicity and that these antioxidants provide a first line of defense against Cd2+ before the induction of any metallothionein synthesis occurs.

353 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20221
202172
202087
201989
201889
2017109

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Walajabad S. Sampath

13 papers, 167 citations

Ana I. Esquifino

12 papers, 418 citations

Gunnar F. Nordberg

11 papers, 602 citations

Anunciación Lafuente

10 papers, 358 citations

Ilona Sadauskiene

6 papers, 38 citations