About: Caffeic acid is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 7106 publications have been published within this topic receiving 255469 citations. The topic is also known as: 3,4-Dihydroxybenzeneacrylic acid & Cichoric acid.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: The antiradical properties of various antioxidants were determined using the free radical 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*) in its radical form as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The antiradical activities of various antioxidants were determined using the free radical, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*). In its radical form. DPPH* has an absorption band at 515 nm which dissappears upon reduction by an antiradical compound. Twenty compounds were reacted with the DPPH* and shown to follow one of three possible reaction kinetic types. Ascorbic acid, isoascorbic acid and isoeugenol reacted quickly with the DPPH* reaching a steady state immediately. Rosmarinic acid and δ-tocopherol reacted a little slower and reached a steady state within 30 min. The remaining compounds reacted more progressively with the DPPH* reaching a steady state from 1 to 6 h. Caffeic acid, gentisic acid and gallic acid showed the highest antiradical activities with a stoichiometry of 4 to 6 reduced DPPH* molecules per molecule of antioxidant. Vanillin, phenol, γ-resorcylic acid and vanillic acid were found to be poor antiradical compounds. The stoichiometry for the other 13 phenolic compounds varied from one to three reduced DPPH* molecules per molecule of antioxidant. Possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the experimental results.
TL;DR: The development of a simple, widely applicable antioxidant capacity index for dietary polyphenols and vitamins C and E is reported, utilizing the copper(II)-neocuproine [Cu(II-Nc] reagent as the chromogenic oxidizing agent.
Abstract: The chemical diversity of antioxidants makes it difficult to separate and quantify antioxidants from the vegetable matrix. Therefore, it is desirable to establish a method that can measure the total antioxidant activity level directly from vegetable extracts. The current literature clearly states that there is no "total antioxidant" as a nutritional index available for food labeling because of the lack of standard quantitation methods. Thus, this work reports the development of a simple, widely applicable antioxidant capacity index for dietary polyphenols and vitamins C and E, utilizing the copper(II)-neocuproine [Cu(II)-Nc] reagent as the chromogenic oxidizing agent. Because the copper(II) (or cupric) ion reducing ability of polyphenols is measured, the method is named by our research group "cupric reducing antioxidant capacity" abbreviated as the CUPRAC method. This method should be advantageous over the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) method because the redox chemistry of copper(II)-as opposed to that of ferric ion-involves faster kinetics. The method comprises mixing of the antioxidant solution (directly or after acid hydrolysis) with a copper(II) chloride solution, a neocuproine alcoholic solution, and an ammonium acetate aqueous buffer at pH 7 and subsequent measurement of the developed absorbance at 450 nm after 30 min. Because the color development is fast for compounds such as ascorbic acid, gallic acid, and quercetin but slow for naringin and naringenin, the latter compounds were assayed after incubation at 50 degrees C on a water bath for 20 min [after Cu(II)-Nc reagent addition] so as to force the oxidation reaction to reach completion. The flavonoid glycosides were hydrolyzed to their corresponding aglycons by refluxing in 1.2 M HCl-containing 50% MeOH so as to exert maximal reducing power toward Cu(II)-Nc. Certain compounds also needed incubation after acid hydrolysis to fully exhibit their reducing capability. The CUPRAC antioxidant capacities of synthetic mixtures of antioxidants were experimentally measured as Trolox equivalents and compared to those theoretically found by making use of the principle of additivity of absorbances assuming no chemical interaction between the mixture constituents. Because ascorbic acid is not resistant to elevated temperature incubation, it should be assayed initially by measuring the absorbance (at 450 nm) difference of original and ascorbate oxidase-added mixture solutions at the end of 1 min of Cu(II)-Nc reagent addition. Thus, the total CUPRAC antioxidant capacity of a mixture containing various antioxidants should be that finally measured after a suitable combination of hydrolysis and incubation procedures, added to the initially measured capacity due to ascorbate. The antioxidant polyphenolic compounds tested demonstrate that the highest capacities in the CUPRAC method were observed for epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin gallate, quercetin, fisetin, epigallocatechin, catechin, and caffeic acid in this order, in accordance with theoretical expectations, because the number and position of the hydroxyl groups as well as the degree of conjugation of the whole molecule are important. The antioxidant potency of flavonoids is nearly proportional to the total number of -OH groups and is positively affected by the presence of an o-dihydroxy moiety in the B-ring. beta-Carotene, which did not react with the CUPRAC reagent in alcoholic aqueous medium, could be assayed in dichloromethane solvent. Linear calibration curves for ascorbic acid and flavonoids were redrawn in synthetic solutions containing a mixture of antioxidants, and also in real matrices such as grape and orange juices, green tea, and blackberry tea, showing an initial nonzero absorbance with the CUPRAC reagent. The parallellism of the linear calibration curves of pure compounds in a given complex matrix effectively demonstrated that there were no interferent chemical interactions among the solution constituents and that the antioxidant capacities of the tested antioxidants were additive. The CUPRAC reagent is reasonably selective, stable, easily accessible, and sensitive toward thiol-type oxidants, unlike the FRAP method. The reaction is carried out at nearly physiological pH as opposed to the unrealistic acidic pH of FRAP.
TL;DR: A biotechnological production of rosmarinic acid with plant cell cultures has been proposed to act as a preformed constitutively accumulated defence compound in plants.
Abstract: Rosmarinic acid is an ester of caffeic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid. It is commonly found in species of the Boraginaceae and the subfamily Nepetoideae of the Lamiaceae. However, it is also found in species of other higher plant families and in some fern and hornwort species. Rosmarinic acid has a number of interesting biological activities, e.g. antiviral, antibacterial, antiinflammatory and antioxidant. The presence of rosmarinic acid in medicinal plants, herbs and spices has beneficial and health promoting effects. In plants, rosmarinic acid is supposed to act as a preformed constitutively accumulated defence compound. The biosynthesis of rosmarinic acid starts with the amino acids l-phenylalanine and l-tyrosine. All eight enzymes involved in the biosynthesis are known and characterised and cDNAs of several of the involved genes have been isolated. Plant cell cultures, e.g. from Coleus blumei or Salvia officinalis, accumulate rosmarinic acid in amounts much higher than in the plant itself (up to 36% of the cell dry weight). For this reason a biotechnological production of rosmarinic acid with plant cell cultures has been proposed.
TL;DR: The fragmentation behavior of 18 chlorogenic acids that are not substituted at position 1 has been investigated using LC-MS(4) applied to a methanolic coffee bean extract and commercial cider and these assignments are internally consistent and consistent with the limited data previously available.
Abstract: The fragmentation behavior of 18 chlorogenic acids that are not substituted at position 1 has been investigated using LC-MS(4) applied to a methanolic coffee bean extract and commercial cider (hard cider). Using LC-MS(3), it is possible to discriminate between each of the three isomers of p-coumaroylquinic acid, caffeoylquinic acid, feruloylquinic acid, and dicaffeoylquinic acid, and a hierarchical key has been prepared to facilitate this process when standards are not available. MS(4) fragmentations further support these assignments, but were not essential in reaching them. The distinctive behavior of 4-acyl and 3-acyl chlorogenic acids compared with the 5-acyl chlorogenic acids is a key factor permitting these assignments. The fragmentation patterns are dependent upon the particular stereochemical relationships between the individual substituents on the quinic acid moiety. Fragmentation is facilitated by 1,2-acyl participation and proceeds through quinic acid conformers in which the relevant substituents transiently adopt a 1,3-syn-diaxial relationship. Selected ion monitoring at m/z 529 clearly indicated the presence in coffee of six caffeoylferuloylquinic acid isomers, whereas previously only two or three had been demonstrated. The hierarchical key permitted specific structures to be assigned to each of the six isomers. These assignments are internally consistent and consistent with the limited data previously available.
TL;DR: Caffeic acid is an effective ABTS(+) scavenging, DPPH scavenging.
Abstract: Caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) is among the major hydroxycinnamic acids present in wine; sinapic acid, which is a potent antioxidant. It has also been identified as one of the active antioxidant. In the present study, the antioxidant properties of the caffeic acid were evaluated by using different in vitro antioxidant assays such as 2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl free radical (DPPH) scavenging, total antioxidant activity by ferric thiocyanate method, total reductive capability using the potassium ferricyanide reduction method, superoxide anion radical scavenging and metal chelating activities. alpha-Tocopherol, trolox, a water-soluble analogue of tocopherol, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) were used as the reference antioxidant compounds. At the concentrations of 10 and 30 microg/mL, caffeic acid showed 68.2 and 75.8% inhibition on lipid peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. On the other hand, 20 microg/mL of standard antioxidant such as BHA, BHT, alpha-tocopherol and trolox indicated an inhibition of 74.4, 71.2, 54.7 and 20.1% on peroxidation of linoleic acid emulsion, respectively. In addition, caffeic acid is an effective ABTS(+) scavenging, DPPH scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, total reducing power and metal chelating on ferrous ions activities.
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