About: Caisson is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 4238 publications have been published within this topic receiving 20283 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
20 Jul 2000
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a broad overview of foundation design and its application in the field of soil engineering, including the following: 1. Deep Foundations-Axial Load Capacity Based on Static Load Tests. 2. Groundwater Classification.
Abstract: (NOTE: Most chapters include Questions and Practice Problems, Summary, and Comprehensive Questions and Practice Problems.) I. GENERAL PRINCIPLES. 1. Foundations in Civil Engineering. The Emergence of Modern Foundation Engineering. The Foundation Engineer. Uncertainties. Building Codes. Classification of Foundations. 2. Performance Requirements. Design Loads. Strength Requirements. Serviceability Requirements. Constructibility Requirements. Economic Requirements. 3. Soil Mechanics. Soil Composition. Soil Classification. Groundwater. Stress. Compressibility and Settlement. Strength. 4. Site Exploration and Characterization. Site Exploration. Laboratory Testing. In-Situ Testing. Synthesis of Field and Laboratory Data. Economics. II. SHALLOW FOUNDATION ANALYSIS AND DESIGN. 5. Shallow Foundations. Spread Footings. Mats. Bearing Pressure. 6. Shallow Foundations-Bearing Capacity. Bearing Capacity Failures. Bearing Capacity Analyses in Soil-General Shear Case. Groundwater Effects. Allowable Bearing Capacity. Selection of Soil Strength Parameters. Bearing Capacity Analyses-Local and Punching Shear Cases. Bearing Capacity on Layered Soils. Accuracy of Bearing Capacity Analyses. Bearing Spreadsheet. 7. Shallow Foundations-Settlement. Design Requirements. Overview of Settlement Analysis Methods. Induced Stresses beneath Shallow Foundations. Settlement Analyses Based on Laboratory Tests. Settlement Spreadsheet. Settlement Analyses Based on In-Situ Tests. Schmertmann Spreadsheet. Settlement of Foundations of Stratified Soils. Differential Settlement. Rate of Settlement. Accuracy of Settlement Predictions. 8. Spread Footings-Geotechnical Design. Design for Concentric Downward Loads. Design for Eccentric or Moment Loads. Design for Shear Loads. Design for Wind or Seismic Loads. Lightly-Loaded Footings. Footings on or near Slopes. Footings on Frozen Soils. Footings on Soils Prone to Scour. Footings on Rock. 9. Spread Footings-Structural Design. Selection of Materials. Basis for Design Methods. Design Loads. Minimum Cover Requirements and Standard Dimensions. Square Footings. Continuous Footings. Rectangular Footings. Combined Footings. Lightly-Loaded Footings. Connections with the Superstructure. 10. Mats. Rigid Methods. Nonrigid Methods. Determining the Coefficient of Subgrade Reaction. Structural Design. Settlement. Bearing Capacity. III. DEEP FOUNDATION ANALYSIS AND DESIGN. 11. Deep Foundations. Types of Deep Foundations and Definitions. Load Transfer. Piles. Drilled Shafts. Caissons. Mandrel-Driven Thin-Shells Filled with Concrete. Auger-Cast Piles. Pressure-Injected Footings. Pile-Supported and Pile-Enhanced Mats. Anchors. 12. Deep Foundations-Structural Integrity. Design Philosophy. Loads and Stresses. Piles. Drilled Shafts. Caps. Grade Beams. 13. Deep Foundations-Axial Load Capacity Based on Static Load Tests. Load Transfer. Conventional Load Tests. Interpretation of Test Results. Mobilization of Soil Resistance. Instrumented Load Tests. Osterberg Load Tests. When and Where to Use Full-Scale Load Tests. 14. Deep Foundations-Axial Load Capacity Based on Analytical Methods. Changes in Soil during Construction. Toe Bearing. Side Friction. Upward Load Capacity. Analyses Based on CPT Results. Group Effects. Settlement. 15. Deep Foundations-Axial Load Capacity Based on Dynamic Methods. Pile-Driving Formulas. Wave Equation Analyses. High-Strain Dynamic Testing. Low-Strain Dynamic Testing. Conclusions. 16. Deep Foundations-Lateral Load Capacity. Batter Piles. Response to Lateral Loads. Methods of Evaluating Lateral Load Capacity. p-y Method. Evans and Duncan's Method. Group Effects. Improving Lateral Capacity. 17. Deep Foundations-Design. Design Service Loads and Allowable Definitions. Subsurface Characterization. Foundation Type. Lateral Load Capacity. Axial Load Capacity. Driveability. Structural Design. Special Design Considerations. Verification and Redesign during Construction. Integrity Testing. IV. SPECIAL TOPICS. 18. Foundations on Weak and Compressible Soils. Deep Foundations. Shallow Foundations. Floating Foundations. Soil Improvement. 19. Foundations on Expansive Soils. The Nature, Origin, and Occurrence of Expansive Soils. Identifying, Testing, and Evaluating Expansive Soils. Estimating Potential Heave. Typical Structural Distress Patterns. Preventive Design and Construction Measures. Other Sources of Heave. 20. Foundations on Collapsible Soils. Origin and Occurrence of Collapsible Soils. Identification, Sampling, and Testing. Wetting Processes. Settlement Computations. Collapse in Deep Compacted Fills. Preventive and Remedial Measures. 21. Reliability-Based Design. Methods. LRFD for Structural Strength Requirements. LRFD for Geotechnical Strength Requirements. Serviceability Requirements. The Role of Engineering Judgement. Transition of LRFD. V. EARTH RETAINING STRUCTURE ANALYSIS AND DESIGN. 22. Earth-Retaining Structures. Externally Stabilized Systems. Internally Stabilized Systems. 23. Lateral Earth Pressures. Horizontal Stresses in Soil. Classical Lateral Earth Pressure Theories. Lateral Earth Pressures in Soils with c ...o and ... ...o 0. Equivalent Fluid Method. Presumptive Lateral Earth Pressures. Lateral Earth Pressures from Surcharge Loads. Groundwater Effects. Practical Application. 24. Cantilever Retaining Walls. External Stability. Retwall Spreadsheet. Internal Stability (Structural Design). Drainage and Waterproofing. Avoidance of Frost Heave Problems. 25. Sheet Pile Walls. Materials. Construction Methods and Equipment. Cantilever Sheet Pile Walls. Braced or Anchored Sheet Pile Walls. Appendix A: Unit Conversion Factors. Appendix B: Computer Software. References. Index.
TL;DR: In this article, a program of testing on suction caisson foundations in an artificially prepared sand test bed near Luce Bay, in Scotland, is described, with the results relevant to the design of either monopod or quadruped foundations for offshore wind turbines.
Abstract: A programme of testing on suction caisson foundations in an artificially prepared sand test bed near Luce Bay, in Scotland, is described The tests are relevant to the design of either monopod or quadruped foundations for offshore wind turbines Records are presented for suction installation of the caissons, cyclic moment loading under both quasi-static and dynamic conditions to simulate the behaviour of a monopod foundation, and cyclic vertical loading and pullout of caissons to simulate one footing in a quadruped foundation Variations of stiffness with loading level of the foundation are observed, with high initial stiffness followed by hysteretic behaviour at moderate loads and degradation of response at high loads Some implications for the design of wind turbine foundations are briefly discussed
TL;DR: In this paper, the bearing capacity of shallow circular foundations on undrained clay is investigated, and the results have widespread application, particularly in the offshore industry, where the footing is not placed at the ground surface and it is important to take into account the depth of embedment.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION The bearing capacity of circular foundations on undrained clay is of fundamental importance in many geotechnical problems. In particular there are a number of designs of offshore foundations where the foundation can be treated approximately as a large circular footing, for instance some gravity bases, the spudcan foundations of jack-up units, and the more recently developed caisson foundations. In most cases the footing is not placed at the ground surface, and it is important to take into account the depth of embedment. Furthermore, the base of a spudcan is generally not flat, but approximates a shallow cone. For foundations on soft clays, the effect of the increase of strength of the soil with depth needs to be taken into account, and this is particularly important for large foundations. The purpose of this note is to present calculations of bearing capacity factors for shallow circular foundations, accounting for embedment, cone angle, rate of increase of strength with depth, and surface roughness of the foundation. The results have widespread application, particularly in the offshore industry. The soil is assumed to be rigid-plastic, with yield determined by the Tresca condition with an undrained strength su. The method of characteristics is used for the bearing capacity calculation, as described by Shield (1955), Eason & Shield (1960), Houlsby (1982) and Houlsby & Wroth (1982a) for application to undrained axisymmetric problems. Some previous results have been published for this problem using similar numerical techniques (e.g. Houlsby & Wroth, 1982b; Salencon & Matar, 1982; Houlsby & Wroth, 1983; Tani & Craig, 1995; Martin, 2001), but the study presented here involves a much more comprehensive coverage of the parameters. Where comparisons can be made with the previous solutions, the factors differ by up to about 0·5%, which gives some indication of the level of accuracy attainable with this numerical technique. Exceptionally, the rough footing results given by Tani & Craig (1995) are higher by up to about 5%, but this may be due to a problem with their numerical integration procedures (see Martin & Randolph, 2001).
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors consider the calculations appropriate for the installation of caissons in sands and present methods for determining the resistance to penetration of open-ended cylindrical caisson foundations both with and without the application of suction inside the caisson.
Abstract: Suction-installed caisson foundations are being used or considered for a wide variety of offshore applications ranging from anchors for floating facilities to shallow foundations for offshore wind turbines. In the design of the caissons the installation procedure must be considered as well as the in-place performance. The scope of this paper is to consider the calculations appropriate for the installation of caissons in sands. Calculation methods are presented for determining the resistance to penetration of open-ended cylindrical caisson foundations both with and without the application of suction inside the caisson. Comparisons are made with case records. A companion paper addresses the calculation procedure for installation in clays as well as in other soils.
TL;DR: In this article, a review of foundations for offshore wind energy convertors considering the significant growth of offshore wind power since the early 2000s is presented, where the characteristics of various foundation types (i.e., gravity, pile, suction caisson, and float type) and current status of field application are discussed.
Abstract: This paper reviews foundations for offshore wind energy convertors considering the significant growth of offshore wind energy since the early 2000s. The characteristics of various foundation types (i.e., gravity, pile, suction caisson, and float type) and the current status of field application are discussed. Moreover, the mechanical characteristics of soil are described in the sense that these characteristics including modulus, strength, damping, and modulus degradation of soil play critical roles for the design of offshore foundations. By using these mechanical properties of soil, theoretical studies to consider structure-soil interaction are classified (into equivalent spring models, distributed spring models, and continuous element models) and explained. Field and laboratory experiments on the response of structure embedded in soil to static and dynamic loads are discussed. Based on the review of previous studies, directions for future research and study on offshore wind turbine are suggested.
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