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Callus formation

About: Callus formation is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 5393 publications have been published within this topic receiving 164773 citations.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In vivo redox biosensing resolves the spatiotemporal dynamics of compartmental responses to local ROS generation and provide a basis for understanding how compartment-specific redox dynamics may operate in retrograde signaling and stress 67 acclimation in plants.
Abstract: In experiments with tobacco tissue cultured on White's modified medium (basal meditmi hi Tnhles 1 and 2) supplemenk'd with kiticthi and hidoleacctic acid, a slrikin^' fourlo (ive-told intTease iu yield was ohtaitu-d within a three to Tour week j^rowth period on addition of an aqtteotis exlrarl of tobacco leaves (Fi^'ures 1 and 2). Subse(iueutly it was found Ihiit this jnoniotiou oi' f^rowih was due mainly though nol entirely to inorj^auic rather than organic con.stitttenls in the extract. In the isolation of Rrowth factors from plant tissues and other sources inorj '̂anic salts are fre(|uently carried along with fhe organic fraclioits. When tissue cultures are used for bioassays, therefore, il is necessary lo lake into account increases in growth which may result from nutrient elements or other known constituents of the medium which may he present in the materials. To minimize interference trom rontaminaitis of this type, an altempt has heen made to de\\eh)p a nieditmi with such adequate supplies of all re(iuired tnineral nutrients and cotntnott orgattic cottslitueitls that no apprecial»le change in growth rate or yield will result from the inlroduclion of additional amounts in the range ordinarily expected to be present in tnaterials to be assayed. As a point of referetice for this work some of the culture media in mc)st common current use will he cotisidered briefly. For ease of comparis4)n Iheir mineral compositions are listed in Tables 1 and 2. White's nutrient .solution, designed originally for excised root cultures, was based on Uspeuski and Uspetiskaia's medium for algae and Trelease and Trelease's micronutrieni solution. This medium also was employed successfully in the original cttltivation of callus from the tobacco Iiybrid Nicotiana gtauca x A', tanijadorffii, atitl as further modified by White in 194̂ ^ and by others it has been used for the

63,098 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, it was shown that (NH4)2SO4 combined with KNO3 at low concentration is of advantage to the formation, growth and differentiation of pollen callus in rice.
Abstract: The experiments have revealed that (NH4)2SO4 combined with KNO3 at low concentration is of advantage to the formation, growth and differentiation of pollen callus in rice, whereas the high concentration of (NH4)2SO4, whether used separately or in combination with KNO3, obviously inhibits the pollen callus formation. The optimum NH4+ concen- tration is about 7.0 mM (equal to 3.5 mM (NH4)2SO4). A basic medium containing 3.5 mM (NH4)2SO4 and 28 mM KNO3 as nitrogen sources has been established. On such medium the frequency of the pollen callus formation is higher than that on Millers me- dium, and the differentiation of shoot from pollen callus is satisfactory.

1,421 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The scientific basis of the fixation and function of these new implants has been reviewed and the application of the internal fixator foregoes the need of adaptation of the shape of the splint to that of the bone during surgery, making it possible to apply theinternal fixator as a minimally invasive percutaneous osteosynthesis (MIPO).
Abstract: The advent of 'biological internal fixation' is an important development in the surgical management of fractures. Locked nailing has demonstrated that flexible fixation without precise reduction results in reliable healing. While external fixators are mainly used today to provide temporary fixation in fractures after severe injury, the internal fixator offers flexible fixation, maintaining the advantages of the external fixator but allowing long-term treatment. The internal fixator resembles a plate but functions differently. It is based on pure splinting rather than compression. The resulting flexible stabilisation induces the formation of callus. With the use of locked threaded bolts, the application of the internal fixator foregoes the need of adaptation of the shape of the splint to that of the bone during surgery. Thus, it is possible to apply the internal fixator as a minimally invasive percutaneous osteosynthesis (MIPO). Minimal surgical trauma and flexible fixation allow prompt healing when the blood supply to bone is maintained or can be restored early. The scientific basis of the fixation and function of these new implants has been reviewed. The biomechanical aspects principally address the degree of instability which may be tolerated by fracture healing under different biological conditions. Fractures may heal spontaneously in spite of gross instability while minimal, even non-visible, instability may be deleterious for rigidly fixed small fracture gaps. The theory of strain offers an explanation for the maximum instability which will be tolerated and the minimal degree required for induction of callus formation. The biological aspects of damage to the blood supply, necrosis and temporary porosity explain the importance of avoiding extensive contact of the implant with bone. The phenomenon of bone loss and stress protection has a biological rather than a mechanical explanation. The same mechanism of necrosis-induced internal remodelling may explain the basic process of direct healing.

1,163 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The most frequent component causes for lower-extremity ulcers were trauma, neuropathy, and deformity, which were present in a majority of patients, and clinics are encouraged to use proven strategies to prevent and decrease the impact of modifiable conditions leading to foot ulcers in patients with diabetes.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and constellations of anatomic, pathophysiologic, and environmental factors involved in the development of incident diabetic foot ulcers in patients with diabetes and no history of foot ulcers from Manchester, U.K., and Seattle, Washington, research settings. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The Rothman model of causation was applied to the diabetic foot ulcer condition. The presence of structural deformities, peripheral neuropathy, ischemia, infection, edema, and callus formation was determined for diabetic individuals with incident foot ulcers in Manchester and Seattle. Demographic, health, diabetes, and ulcer data were ascertained for each patient. A multidisciplinary group of foot specialists blinded to patient identity independently reviewed detailed abstracts to determine component and sufficient causes present and contributing to the development of each patient9s foot ulcer. A modified Delphi process assisted the group in reaching consensus on component causes for each patient. Estimates of the proportion of ulcers that could be ascribed to each component cause were computed. RESULTS: From among 92 study patients from Manchester and 56 from Seattle, 32 unique causal pathways were identified. A critical triad (neuropathy, minor foot trauma, foot deformity) was present in > 63% of patient9s causal pathways to foot ulcers. The components edema and ischemia contributed to the development of 37 and 35% of foot ulcers, respectively. Callus formation was associated with ulcer development in 30% of the pathways. Two unitary causes of ulcer were identified, with trauma and edema accounting for 6 and

1,005 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This review has attempted to examine catabolism/remodeling in fractures in a systematic fashion by examining the cellular participants in soft callus remodeling and in particular the role of the osteoclast in endochondral ossification.

780 citations

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