Topic

# Camber (aerodynamics)

About: Camber (aerodynamics) is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1855 publications have been published within this topic receiving 21542 citations. The topic is also known as: cambrure.

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01 Jan 1926

TL;DR: The aerofoil in three dimensions has been studied in this article, where Bernoulli's equation and the potential function are used to transform a circle into an acerofoil.

Abstract: 1. Introduction 2. Bernoulli's equation 3. The stream function 4. Circulation and vorticity 5. The velocity potential and the potential function 6. The transformation of a circle into an aerofoil 7. The aerofoil in two dimensions 8. Viscosity and drag 9. The basis of aerofoil theory 10. The aerofoil in three dimensions 11. The monoplane aerofoil 12. The flow round an acerofoil 13. Biplane aerofoils 14. Wind tunnel interference on areofoils 15. The airscrew: momentum theory 16. The airscrew: blade element theory 17. The airscrew: wind tunnel interference Appendix Bibliography Index.

628 citations

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TL;DR: This study uses propeller models to investigate further the forces acting on model hawkmoth wings in 'propeller-like' rotation ('revolution'), and finds force coefficients are remarkably unaffected by considerable variations in leading-edge detail, twist and camber.

Abstract: Recent work on flapping hawkmoth models has demonstrated the importance of a spiral 'leading-edge vortex' created by dynamic stall, and maintained by some aspect of spanwise flow, for creating the lift required during flight. This study uses propeller models to investigate further the forces acting on model hawkmoth wings in 'propeller-like' rotation ('revolution'). Steadily revolving model hawkmoth wings produce high vertical ( approximately lift) and horizontal ( approximately profile drag) force coefficients because of the presence of a leading-edge vortex. Both horizontal and vertical forces, at relevant angles of attack, are dominated by the pressure difference between the upper and lower surfaces; separation at the leading edge prevents 'leading-edge suction'. This allows a simple geometric relationship between vertical and horizontal forces and the geometric angle of attack to be derived for thin, flat wings. Force coefficients are remarkably unaffected by considerable variations in leading-edge detail, twist and camber. Traditional accounts of the adaptive functions of twist and camber are based on conventional attached-flow aerodynamics and are not supported. Attempts to derive conventional profile drag and lift coefficients from 'steady' propeller coefficients are relatively successful for angles of incidence up to 50 degrees and, hence, for the angles normally applicable to insect flight.

391 citations

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01 Jan 1999

TL;DR: In this article, the authors used explicit mathematical functions for 2D curve definition for airfoil design and 3D wing definition for high lift systems by modelled track gear geometries, translation and rotation in 3D space.

Abstract: Explicit mathematical functions are used for 2D curve definition for airfoil design. Flowphe-nomena-oriented parameters control geometrical and aerodynamic properties. Airfoil shapes are blended with known analytical section formulae. Generic variable camber wing sections and multicomponent airfoils are generated. For 3D wing definition all parameters are made functions of a third spanwise coordinate. High lift systems are defined kinematically by modelled track gear geometries, translation and rotation in 3D space. Examples for parameter variation in numerical optimization, mechanical adaptation and for unsteady coupling of flow and configuration are presented.

358 citations

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TL;DR: The full-fidelity model achieved greater power economy than the uncambered model, which performed better than the untwisted model, showing that the details of insect wing topography and deformation are important aerodynamically.

Abstract: Insect wings are complex structures that deform dramatically in flight. We analyzed the aerodynamic consequences of wing deformation in locusts using a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulation based on detailed wing kinematics. We validated the simulation against smoke visualizations and digital particle image velocimetry on real locusts. We then used the validated model to explore the effects of wing topography and deformation, first by removing camber while keeping the same time-varying twist distribution, and second by removing camber and spanwise twist. The full-fidelity model achieved greater power economy than the uncambered model, which performed better than the untwisted model, showing that the details of insect wing topography and deformation are important aerodynamically. Such details are likely to be important in engineering applications of flapping flight.

355 citations

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TL;DR: The aerodynamic characteristics of the wings and body of a dragonfly and of artificial wing models were studied by conducting two types of wind-tunnel tests and a number of free-flight tests of gliders made using dragonfly wings.

Abstract: The aerodynamic characteristics of the wings and body of a dragonfly and of artificial wing models were studied by conducting two types of wind-tunnel tests and a number of free-flight tests of gliders made using dragonfly wings. The results were consistent between these different tests. The effects of camber, thickness, sharpness of the leading edge and surface roughness on the aerodynamic characteristics of the wings were characterized in the flow field with Reynolds numbers (Re) as low as 103 to 104.

225 citations