Cancer stem cell
About: Cancer stem cell is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 26457 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1265294 citation(s). The topic is also known as: CSC & cancer stem cells.
Muhammad Al-Hajj1, Max S. Wicha1, Adalberto Benito-Hernandez1, Sean J. Morrison2 +2 more•Institutions (2)
Abstract: Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in United States women, accounting for >40,000 deaths each year. These breast tumors are comprised of phenotypically diverse populations of breast cancer cells. Using a model in which human breast cancer cells were grown in immunocompromised mice, we found that only a minority of breast cancer cells had the ability to form new tumors. We were able to distinguish the tumorigenic (tumor initiating) from the nontumorigenic cancer cells based on cell surface marker expression. We prospectively identified and isolated the tumorigenic cells as CD44+CD24−/lowLineage− in eight of nine patients. As few as 100 cells with this phenotype were able to form tumors in mice, whereas tens of thousands of cells with alternate phenotypes failed to form tumors. The tumorigenic subpopulation could be serially passaged: each time cells within this population generated new tumors containing additional CD44+CD24−/lowLineage− tumorigenic cells as well as the phenotypically diverse mixed populations of nontumorigenic cells present in the initial tumor. The ability to prospectively identify tumorigenic cancer cells will facilitate the elucidation of pathways that regulate their growth and survival. Furthermore, because these cells drive tumor development, strategies designed to target this population may lead to more effective therapies.
01 Nov 2001-Nature
Abstract: Stem cell biology has come of age. Unequivocal proof that stem cells exist in the haematopoietic system has given way to the prospective isolation of several tissue-specific stem and progenitor cells, the initial delineation of their properties and expressed genetic programmes, and the beginnings of their utility in regenerative medicine. Perhaps the most important and useful property of stem cells is that of self-renewal. Through this property, striking parallels can be found between stem cells and cancer cells: tumours may often originate from the transformation of normal stem cells, similar signalling pathways may regulate self-renewal in stem cells and cancer cells, and cancer cells may include 'cancer stem cells' - rare cells with indefinite potential for self-renewal that drive tumorigenesis.
16 May 2008-Cell
Abstract: The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key developmental program that is often activated during cancer invasion and metastasis. We here report that the induction of an EMT in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMLEs) results in the acquisition of mesenchymal traits and in the expression of stem-cell markers. Furthermore, we show that those cells have an increased ability to form mammospheres, a property associated with mammary epithelial stem cells. Independent of this, stem cell-like cells isolated from HMLE cultures form mammospheres and express markers similar to those of HMLEs that have undergone an EMT. Moreover, stem-like cells isolated either from mouse or human mammary glands or mammary carcinomas express EMT markers. Finally, transformed human mammary epithelial cells that have undergone an EMT form mammospheres, soft agar colonies, and tumors more efficiently. These findings illustrate a direct link between the EMT and the gain of epithelial stem cell properties.
Topics: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (60%), Cancer stem cell (59%), Mesenchymal–epithelial transition (58%) ...read more
18 Nov 2004-Nature
Abstract: The cancer stem cell (CSC) hypothesis suggests that neoplastic clones are maintained exclusively by a rare fraction of cells with stem cell properties. Although the existence of CSCs in human leukaemia is established, little evidence exists for CSCs in solid tumours, except for breast cancer. Recently, we prospectively isolated a CD133+ cell subpopulation from human brain tumours that exhibited stem cell properties in vitro. However, the true measures of CSCs are their capacity for self renewal and exact recapitulation of the original tumour. Here we report the development of a xenograft assay that identified human brain tumour initiating cells that initiate tumours in vivo. Only the CD133+ brain tumour fraction contains cells that are capable of tumour initiation in NOD-SCID (non-obese diabetic, severe combined immunodeficient) mouse brains. Injection of as few as 100 CD133+ cells produced a tumour that could be serially transplanted and was a phenocopy of the patient's original tumour, whereas injection of 10(5) CD133- cells engrafted but did not cause a tumour. Thus, the identification of brain tumour initiating cells provides insights into human brain tumour pathogenesis, giving strong support for the CSC hypothesis as the basis for many solid tumours, and establishes a previously unidentified cellular target for more effective cancer therapies.
01 Jul 1997-Nature Medicine
Abstract: On the subject of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), there is little consensus about the target cell within the hematopoietic stem cell hierarchy that is susceptible to leukemic transformation, or about the mechanism that underlies the phenotypic, genotypic and clinical heterogeneity. Here we demonstrate that the cell capable of initiating human AML in non-obese diabetic mice with severe combined immunodeficiency disease (NOD/SCID mice) - termed the SCID leukemia-initiating cell, or SL-IC - possesses the differentiative and proliferative capacities and the potential for self-renewal expected of a leukemic stem cell. The SL-ICs from all subtypes of AML analyzed, regardless of the heterogeneity in maturation characteristics of the leukemic blasts, were exclusively CD34++ CD38-, similar to the cell-surface phenotype of normal SCID-repopulating cells, suggesting that normal primitive cells, rather than committed progenitor cells, are the target for leukemic transformation. The SL-ICs were able to differentiate in vivo into leukemic blasts, indicating that the leukemic clone is organized as a hierarchy.