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Candida parapsilosis

About: Candida parapsilosis is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3084 publications have been published within this topic receiving 97506 citations.


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TL;DR: A delay in the initiation of fluconazole therapy in hospitalized patients with candidemia significantly impacted mortality, and new methods to avoid delays in appropriate antifungal therapy are needed.
Abstract: BACKGROUND Inadequate antimicrobial treatment is an independent determinant of hospital mortality, and fungal bloodstream infections are among the types of infection with the highest rates of inappropriate initial treatment. Because of significant potential for reducing high mortality rates, we sought to assess the impact of delayed treatment across multiple study sites. The goals our analyses were to establish the frequency and duration of delayed antifungal treatment and to evaluate the relationship between treatment delay and mortality. METHODS We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients with candidemia from 4 medical centers who were prescribed fluconazole. Time to initiation of fluconazole therapy was calculated by subtracting the date on which fluconazole therapy was initiated from the culture date of the first blood sample positive for yeast. RESULTS A total of 230 patients (51% male; mean age +/- standard deviation, 56 +/- 17 years) were identified; 192 of these had not been given prior treatment with fluconazole. Patients most commonly had nonsurgical hospital admission (162 patients [70%]) with a central line catheter (193 [84%]), diabetes (68 [30%]), or cancer (54 [24%]). Candida species causing infection included Candida albicans (129 patients [56%]), Candida glabrata (38 [16%]), Candida parapsilosis (25 [11%]), or Candida tropicalis (15 [7%]). The number of days to the initiation of antifungal treatment was 0 (92 patients [40%]), 1 (38 [17%]), 2 (33 [14%]) or > or = 3 (29 [12%]). Mortality rates were lowest for patients who began therapy on day 0 (14 patients [15%]) followed by patients who began on day 1 (9 [24%]), day 2 (12 [37%]), or day > or = 3 (12 [41%]) (P = .0009 for trend). Multivariate logistic regression was used to calculate independent predictors of mortality, which include increased time until fluconazole initiation (odds ratio, 1.42; P < .05) and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score (1-point increments; odds ratio, 1.13; P < .05). CONCLUSION A delay in the initiation of fluconazole therapy in hospitalized patients with candidemia significantly impacted mortality. New methods to avoid delays in appropriate antifungal therapy, such as rapid diagnostic tests or identification of unique risk factors, are needed.

1,072 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A brief review of the literature regarding the epidemiology of Candida species, as well as their pathogenicity and ability to form biofilms, the antifungal activity of natural products and other therapeutic options is presented.
Abstract: The incidence of fungal infections has increased significantly, so contributing to morbidity and mortality. This is caused by an increase in antimicrobial resistance and the restricted number of antifungal drugs, which retain many side effects. Candida species are major human fungal pathogens that cause both mucosal and deep tissue infections. Recent evidence suggests that the majority of infections produced by this pathogen are associated with biofilm growth. Biofilms are biological communities with a high degree of organization, in which micro-organisms form structured, coordinated and functional communities. These biological communities are embedded in a self-created extracellular matrix. Biofilm production is also associated with a high level of antimicrobial resistance of the associated organisms. The ability of Candida species to form drug-resistant biofilms is an important factor in their contribution to human disease. The study of plants as an alternative to other forms of drug discovery has attracted great attention because, according to the World Health Organization, these would be the best sources for obtaining a wide variety of drugs and could benefit a large population. Furthermore, silver nanoparticles, antibodies and photodynamic inactivation have also been used with good results. This article presents a brief review of the literature regarding the epidemiology of Candida species, as well as their pathogenicity and ability to form biofilms, the antifungal activity of natural products and other therapeutic options.

964 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The epidemiology and choice of therapy for candidemia are rapidly changing and additional study is warranted to differentiate host factors and differences in virulence among Candida species and to determine the best therapeutic regimen.
Abstract: Background. Candidemia remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the health care setting, and the epidemiology of Candida infection is changing. Methods. Clinical data from patients with candidemia were extracted from the Prospective Antifungal Therapy (PATH) Alliance database, a comprehensive registry that collects information regarding invasive fungal infections. A total of 2019 patients, enrolled from 1 July 2004 through 5 March 2008, were identified. Data regarding the candidemia episode were analyzed, including the specific fungal species and patient survival at 12 weeks after diagnosis. Results. The incidence of candidemia caused by non-Candida albicans Candida species (54.4%) was higher than the incidence of candidemia caused by C. albicans (45.6%). The overall, crude 12-week mortality rate was 35.2%. Patients with Candida parapsilosis candidemia had the lowest mortality rate (23.7%; P<.001) and were less likely to be neutropenic (5.1%; P<.001) and to receive corticosteroids (33.5%; P<.001) or other immunosuppressive drugs (7.9%; P = .002), compared with patients infected with other Candida species. Candida krusei candidemia was most commonly associated with prior use of antifungal agents (70.6%; P<.001), hematologic malignancy (52.9%; P<.001) or stem cell transplantation (17.7%; P<.001), neutropenia (45.1%; P<.001), and corticosteroid treatment (60.8%; P<.001). Patients with C. krusei candidemia had the highest crude 12-week mortality in this series (52.9%; P<.001). Fluconazole was the most commonly administered antimicrobial, followed by the echinocandins, and amphotericin B products were infrequently administered. Conclusions. The epidemiology and choice of therapy for candidemia are rapidly changing. Additional study is warranted to differentiate host factors and differences in virulence among Candida species and to determine the best therapeutic regimen.

895 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Subjects in the observational cohort had higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores than did participants in the clinical trial, which suggests that the former subjects are more often excluded from therapeutic trials.
Abstract: We conducted a prospective, multicenter observational study of adults (n=1447) and children (n=144) with candidemia at tertiary care centers in the United States in parallel with a candidemia treatment trial that included nonneutropenic adults. Candida albicans was the most common bloodstream isolate recovered from adults and children (45% vs. 49%) and was associated with high mortality (47% among adults vs. 29% among children). Three-month survival was better among children than among adults (76% vs. 54%; P<.001). Most children received amphotericin B as initial therapy, whereas most adults received fluconazole. In adults, Candida parapsilosis fungemia was associated with lower mortality than was non-parapsilosis candidemia (24% vs. 46%; P<.001). Mortality was similar among subjects with Candida glabrata or non-glabrata candidemia; mortality was also similar among subjects with C. glabrata candidemia who received fluconazole rather than other antifungal therapy. Subjects in the observational cohort had higher Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores than did participants in the clinical trial (18.6 vs. 16.1), which suggests that the former subjects are more often excluded from therapeutic trials.

802 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Information is provided on the current state of knowledge on the biology, identification, epidemiology, pathogenicity and antifungal resistance of C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis.
Abstract: The incidence of infections caused by Candida species (candidosis) has increased considerably over the past three decades, mainly due to the rise of the AIDS epidemic, an increasingly aged population, higher numbers of immunocompromised patients and the more widespread use of indwelling medical devices. Candida albicans is the main cause of candidosis; however, non-C. albicans Candida (NCAC) species such as Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis and Candida parapsilosis are now frequently identified as human pathogens. The apparent increased emergence of these species as human pathogens can be attributed to improved identification methods and also associated with the degree of diseases of the patients, the interventions that they were subjected and the drugs used. Candida pathogenicity is facilitated by a number of virulence factors, most importantly adherence to host surfaces including medical devices, biofilm formation and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes (e.g. proteases, phospholipases and haemolysins). Furthermore, despite extensive research to identify pathogenic factors in fungi, particularly in C. albicans, relatively little is known about NCAC species. This review provides information on the current state of knowledge on the biology, identification, epidemiology, pathogenicity and antifungal resistance of C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. tropicalis.

767 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023134
2022317
2021146
2020143
2019156
2018157