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Cantilever

About: Cantilever is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 19032 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 265886 citation(s).
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A new frequency modulation (FM) technique has been demonstrated which enhances the sensitivity of attractive mode force microscopy by an order of magnitude or more. Increased sensitivity is made possible by operating in a moderate vacuum (<10−3 Torr), which increases the Q of the vibrating cantilever. In the FM technique, the cantilever serves as the frequency determining element of an oscillator. Force gradients acting on the cantilever cause instantaneous frequency modulation of the oscillator output, which is demodulated with a FM detector. Unlike conventional ‘‘slope detection,’’ the FM technique offers increased sensitivity through increased Q without restricting system bandwidth. Experimental comparisons of FM detection in vacuum (Q∼50 000) versus slope detection in air (Q∼100) demonstrated an improvement of more than 10 times in sensitivity for a fixed bandwidth. This improvement is evident in images of magnetic transitions on a thin‐film CoPtCr magnetic disk. In the future, the increased sensitivi...

2,058 citations


01 Jan 2001-
Abstract: A new frequency modulation (FM) technique has been demonstrated which ennances the sensitivity of attractive mode force microscopy by an order of magnitude or more. Increased sensitivity is made possible by operating in a moderate vacuum ( < 10 ’ Torr), which increases the Q of the vibrating cantilever. In the FM technique, the cantilever serves as the frequency determining element of an oscillator. Force gradients acting on the cantilever cause instantaneous frequency modulation of the oscillator output, which is demodulated with a FM detector. Unlike conventional “slope detection,” the FM technique offers increased sensitivity through increased Q without restricting system bandwidth. Experimental comparisons of FM detection in vacuum (Q50 000) versus slope detection in air (Q100) demonstrated an improvement of more than 10 times in sensitivity for a fixed bandwidth. This improvement is evident in images of magnetic transitions on a thin-film CoPtCr magnetic disk. In the future, the increased sensitivity offered by this technique should extend the range of problems accessible by force microscopy.

1,916 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A method to determine the spring constant of a rectangular atomic force microscope cantilever is proposed that relies solely on the measurement of the resonant frequency and quality factor of the cantilever in fluid (typically air), and knowledge of its plan view dimensions. This method gives very good accuracy and improves upon the previous formulation by Sader et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum. 66, 3789 (1995)] which, unlike the present method, requires knowledge of both the cantilever density and thickness.

1,859 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The spring constant of microfabricated cantilevers used in scanning force microscopy (SFM) can be determined by measuring their resonant frequencies before and after adding small end masses These masses adhere naturally and can be easily removed before using the cantilever for SFM, making the method nondestructive The observed variability in spring constant—almost an order of magnitude for a single type of cantilever—necessitates calibration of individual cantilevers in work where precise knowledge of forces is required Measurements also revealed that the spring constant scales with the cube of the unloaded resonant frequency, providing a simple way to estimate the spring constant for less precise work

1,614 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1995-Nanotechnology
Abstract: Thermal fluctuations of the cantilever are a fundamental source of noise in atomic force microscopy. We calculated thermal noise using the equipartition theorem and considering all possible vibration modes of the cantilever. The measurable amplitude of thermal noise depends on the temperature, the spring constant K of the cantilever and on the method by which the cantilever deflection is detected. If the deflection is measured directly, e.g. with an interferometer or a scanning tunneling microscope, the thermal noise of a cantilever with a free end can be calculated from square root kT/K. If the end of the cantilever is supported by a hard surface no thermal fluctuations of the deflection are possible. If the optical lever technique is applied to measure the deflection, the thermal noise of a cantilever with a free end is square root 4kT/3K. When the cantilever is supported thermal noise decreases to square root kT/3K, but it does not vanish.

1,434 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202214
2021542
2020729
2019894
2018944
2017946

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

William P. King

62 papers, 1.8K citations

Anja Boisen

59 papers, 2.8K citations

Isao Shimoyama

47 papers, 648 citations

Ryutaro Maeda

35 papers, 406 citations

Takahito Ono

34 papers, 826 citations