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Capsid

About: Capsid is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 8057 publications have been published within this topic receiving 326334 citations. The topic is also known as: virus capsid & GO:0019028.


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Journal ArticleDOI
26 Feb 2004-Nature
TL;DR: Host cell barriers to the early phase of immunodeficiency virus replication explain the current distribution of these viruses among human and non-human primate species and reveal host cell components that modulate the uncoating of a retroviral capsid.
Abstract: Host cell barriers to the early phase of immunodeficiency virus replication explain the current distribution of these viruses among human and non-human primate species. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, efficiently enters the cells of Old World monkeys but encounters a block before reverse transcription. This species-specific restriction acts on the incoming HIV-1 capsid and is mediated by a dominant repressive factor. Here we identify TRIM5alpha, a component of cytoplasmic bodies, as the blocking factor. HIV-1 infection is restricted more efficiently by rhesus monkey TRIM5alpha than by human TRIM5alpha. The simian immunodeficiency virus, which naturally infects Old World monkeys, is less susceptible to the TRIM5alpha-mediated block than is HIV-1, and this difference in susceptibility is due to the viral capsid. The early block to HIV-1 infection in monkey cells is relieved by interference with TRIM5alpha expression. Our studies identify TRIM5alpha as a species-specific mediator of innate cellular resistance to HIV-1 and reveal host cell components that modulate the uncoating of a retroviral capsid.

1,828 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results indicate that L1 protein has the intrinsic capacity to assemble into empty capsid-like structures whose immunogenicity is similar to infectious virions.
Abstract: Infection by certain human papillomavirus types is regarded as the major risk factor in the development of cervical cancer, one of the most common cancers of women worldwide. Analysis of the immunogenic and structural features of papillomavirus virions has been hampered by the inability to efficiently propagate the viruses in cultured cells. For instance, it has not been established whether the major capsid protein L1 alone is sufficient for virus particle assembly. In addition, it is not known whether L1, L2 (the minor capsid protein), or both present the immunodominant epitopes required for induction of high-titer neutralizing antibodies. We have expressed the L1 major capsid proteins of bovine papillomavirus type 1 and human papillomavirus type 16 in insect cells via a baculovirus vector and analyzed their conformation and immunogenicity. The L1 proteins were expressed at high levels and assembled into structures that closely resembled papillomavirus virions. The self-assembled bovine papillomavirus L1, in contrast to L1 extracted from recombinant bacteria or denatured virions, also mimicked intact bovine papillomavirus virions in being able to induce high-titer neutralizing rabbit antisera. These results indicate that L1 protein has the intrinsic capacity to assemble into empty capsid-like structures whose immunogenicity is similar to infectious virions. This type of L1 preparation might be considered as a candidate for a serological test to measure antibodies to conformational virion epitopes and for a vaccine to prevent papillomavirus infection.

1,121 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A review of recent biochemical and structural studies that help clarify the mechanisms of viral assembly, infection, and replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.
Abstract: Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is a complex retrovirus encoding 15 distinct proteins. Substantial progress has been made toward understanding the function of each protein, and three-dimensional structures of many components, including portions of the RNA genome, have been determined. This review describes the function of each component in the context of the viral life cycle: the Gag and Env structural proteins MA (matrix), CA (capsid), NC (nucleocapsid), p6, SU (surface), and TM (transmembrane); the Pol enzymes PR (protease), RT (reverse transcriptase), and IN (integrase); the gene regulatory proteins Tat and Rev; and the accessory proteins Nef, Vif, Vpr, and Vpu. The review highlights recent biochemical and structural studies that help clarify the mechanisms of viral assembly, infection, and replication.

979 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The data indicate that at least nine polypeptides are produced by cleavage of the HCV H strain polyprotein, and preliminary results suggest that a fraction of E1 is associated with E2 and E2-NS2 via disulfide linkages.
Abstract: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the major cause of transfusion-acquired non-A, non-B hepatitis. HCV is an enveloped positive-sense RNA virus which has been classified as a new genus in the flavivirus family. Like the other two genera in this family, the flaviviruses and the pestiviruses, HCV polypeptides appear to be produced by translation of a long open reading frame and subsequent proteolytic processing of this polyprotein. In this study, a cDNA clone encompassing the long open reading frame of the HCV H strain (3,011 amino acid residues) has been assembled and sequenced. This clone and various truncated derivatives were used in vaccinia virus transient-expression assays to map HCV-encoded polypeptides and to study HCV polyprotein processing. HCV polyproteins and cleavage products were identified by using convalescent human sera and a panel of region-specific polyclonal rabbit antisera. Similar results were obtained for several mammalian cell lines examined, including the human HepG2 hepatoma line. The data indicate that at least nine polypeptides are produced by cleavage of the HCV H strain polyprotein. Putative structural proteins, located in the N-terminal one-fourth of the polyprotein, include the capsid protein C (21 kDa) followed by two possible virion envelope proteins, E1 (31 kDa) and E2 (70 kDa), which are heavily modified by N-linked glycosylation. The remainder of the polyprotein probably encodes nonstructural proteins including NS2 (23 kDa), NS3 (70 kDa), NS4A (8 kDa), NS4B (27 kDa), NS5A (58 kDa), and NS5B (68 kDa). An 82- to 88-kDa glycoprotein which reacted with both E2 and NS2-specific HCV antisera was also identified (called E2-NS2). Preliminary results suggest that a fraction of E1 is associated with E2 and E2-NS2 via disulfide linkages.

977 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The availability of large amounts of recombinant Norwalk virus particles will allow the development of rapid, sensitive, and reliable tests for the diagnosis of Norwalkirus infection as well as the implementation of structural studies.
Abstract: Norwalk virus capsid protein was produced by expression of the second and third open reading frames of the Norwalk virus genome, using a cell-free translation system and baculovirus recombinants. Analysis of the expressed products showed that the second open reading frame encodes a protein with an apparent molecular weight of 58,000 (58K protein) and that this protein self-assembles to form empty viruslike particles similar to native capsids in size and appearance. The antigenicity of these particles was demonstrated by immunoprecipitation and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays of paired serum samples from volunteers who developed illness following Norwalk virus challenge. These particles also induced high levels of Norwalk virus-specific serum antibody in laboratory animals following parenteral inoculation. A minor 34K protein was also found in infected insect cells. Amino acid sequence analysis of the N terminus of the 34K protein indicated that the 34K protein was a cleavage product of the 58K protein. The availability of large amounts of recombinant Norwalk virus particles will allow the development of rapid, sensitive, and reliable tests for the diagnosis of Norwalk virus infection as well as the implementation of structural studies.

850 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023418
2022880
2021278
2020297
2019275
2018278