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Topic

CAPTCHA

About: CAPTCHA is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1304 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 18987 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart & captcha.
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Book ChapterDOI
04 May 2003-
TL;DR: This work introduces captcha, an automated test that humans can pass, but current computer programs can't pass; any program that has high success over a captcha can be used to solve an unsolved Artificial Intelligence (AI) problem; and provides several novel constructions of captchas, which imply a win-win situation.
Abstract: We introduce captcha, an automated test that humans can pass, but current computer programs can't pass: any program that has high success over a captcha can be used to solve an unsolved Artificial Intelligence (AI) problem. We provide several novel constructions of captchas. Since captchas have many applications in practical security, our approach introduces a new class of hard problems that can be exploited for security purposes. Much like research in cryptography has had a positive impact on algorithms for factoring and discrete log, we hope that the use of hard AI problems for security purposes allows us to advance the field of Artificial Intelligence. We introduce two families of AI problems that can be used to construct captchas and we show that solutions to such problems can be used for steganographic communication. captchas based on these AI problem families, then, imply a win-win situation: either the problems remain unsolved and there is a way to differentiate humans from computers, or the problems are solved and there is a way to communicate covertly on some channels.

1,436 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
12 Sep 2008-Science
TL;DR: This research explored whether human effort can be channeled into a useful purpose: helping to digitize old printed material by asking users to decipher scanned words from books that computerized optical character recognition failed to recognize.
Abstract: CAPTCHAs (Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart) are widespread security measures on the World Wide Web that prevent automated programs from abusing online services. They do so by asking humans to perform a task that computers cannot yet perform, such as deciphering distorted characters. Our research explored whether such human effort can be channeled into a useful purpose: helping to digitize old printed material by asking users to decipher scanned words from books that computerized optical character recognition failed to recognize. We showed that this method can transcribe text with a word accuracy exceeding 99%, matching the guarantee of professional human transcribers. Our apparatus is deployed in more than 40,000 Web sites and has transcribed over 440 million words.

1,099 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
18 Jun 2003-
TL;DR: Efficient methods based on shape context matching are developed that can identify the word in an EZ-Gimpy image with a success rate of 92%, and the requisite 3 words in a Gimpy image 33% of the time.
Abstract: In this paper we explore object recognition in clutter. We test our object recognition techniques on Gimpy and EZ-Gimpy, examples of visual CAPTCHAs. A CAPTCHA ("Completely Automated Public Turing test to Tell Computers and Humans Apart") is a program that can generate and grade tests that most humans can pass, yet current computer programs can't pass. EZ-Gimpy, currently used by Yahoo, and Gimpy are CAPTCHAs based on word recognition in the presence of clutter. These CAPTCHAs provide excellent test sets since the clutter they contain is adversarial; it is designed to confuse computer programs. We have developed efficient methods based on shape context matching that can identify the word in an EZ-Gimpy image with a success rate of 92%, and the requisite 3 words in a Gimpy image 33% of the time. The problem of identifying words in such severe clutter provides valuable insight into the more general problem of object recognition in scenes. The methods that we present are instances of a framework designed to tackle this general problem.

660 citations


Proceedings Article
01 Oct 2007-
TL;DR: A CAPTCHA that asks users to identify cats out of a set of 12 photographs of both cats and dogs, and two novel algorithms for amplifying the skill gap between humans and computers that can be used on many existing CAPTCHAs are described.
Abstract: We present Asirra (Figure 1), a CAPTCHA that asks users to identify cats out of a set of 12 photographs of both cats and dogs. Asirra is easy for users; user studies indicate it can be solved by humans 99.6% of the time in under 30 seconds. Barring a major advance in machine vision, we expect computers will have no better than a 1/54,000 chance of solving it. Asirra’s image database is provided by a novel, mutually beneficial partnership with Petfinder.com. In exchange for the use of their three million images, we display an “adopt me” link beneath each one, promoting Petfinder’s primary mission of finding homes for homeless animals. We describe the design of Asirra, discuss threats to its security, and report early deployment experiences. We also describe two novel algorithms for amplifying the skill gap between humans and computers that can be used on many existing CAPTCHAs.

474 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
27 Oct 2008-
TL;DR: It is shown that CAPTCHAs that are carefully designed to be segmentation-resistant are vulnerable to novel but simple attacks, including the schemes designed and deployed by Microsoft, Yahoo and Google.
Abstract: CAPTCHA is now almost a standard security technology. The most widely deployed CAPTCHAs are text-based schemes, which typically require users to solve a text recognition task. The state of the art of CAPTCHA design suggests that such text-based schemes should rely on segmentation resistance to provide security guarantee, as individual character recognition after segmentation can be solved with a high success rate by standard methods such as neural networks.In this paper, we present new character segmentation techniques of general value to attack a number of text CAPTCHAs, including the schemes designed and deployed by Microsoft, Yahoo and Google. In particular, the Microsoft CAPTCHA has been deployed since 2002 at many of their online services including Hotmail, MSN and Windows Live. Designed to be segmentation-resistant, this scheme has been studied and tuned by its designers over the years. However, our simple attack has achieved a segmentation success rate of higher than 90% against this scheme. It took on average ~80 ms for the attack to completely segment a challenge on an ordinary desktop computer. As a result, we estimate that this CAPTCHA could be instantly broken by a malicious bot with an overall (segmentation and then recognition) success rate of more than 60%. On the contrary, the design goal was that automated attacks should not achieve a success rate of higher than 0.01%. For the first time, this paper shows that CAPTCHAs that are carefully designed to be segmentation-resistant are vulnerable to novel but simple attacks.

383 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20224
202172
202092
201977
201888
201791

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Darko Brodić

15 papers, 57 citations

Haichang Gao

14 papers, 234 citations

Alessia Amelio

13 papers, 38 citations

Lidia Ogiela

12 papers, 33 citations

Mohammad Shirali-Shahreza

12 papers, 292 citations