About: Carica is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 3876 publications have been published within this topic receiving 48491 citations.
Papers published on a yearly basis
University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign1, Nankai University2, University of Maryland, College Park3, University of Georgia4, University of California, Berkeley5, Rutgers University6, Pennsylvania State University7, Indiana University8, United States Department of Agriculture9, Texas A&M University10, J. Craig Venter Institute11, University of Tennessee Health Science Center12, University of Hawaii at Manoa13, WiCell14, Michigan State University15, University of Wisconsin-Madison16, Duke University17, University of California, Davis18, Applied Biosystems19
TL;DR: Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica’s distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties.
Abstract: Papaya, a fruit crop cultivated in tropical and subtropical regions, is known for its nutritional benefits and medicinal applications. Here we report a 3x draft genome sequence of 'SunUp' papaya, the first commercial virus-resistant transgenic fruit tree to be sequenced. The papaya genome is three times the size of the Arabidopsis genome, but contains fewer genes, including significantly fewer disease-resistance gene analogues. Comparison of the five sequenced genomes suggests a minimal angiosperm gene set of 13,311. A lack of recent genome duplication, atypical of other angiosperm genomes sequenced so far, may account for the smaller papaya gene number in most functional groups. Nonetheless, striking amplifications in gene number within particular functional groups suggest roles in the evolution of tree-like habit, deposition and remobilization of starch reserves, attraction of seed dispersal agents, and adaptation to tropical daylengths. Transgenesis at three locations is closely associated with chloroplast insertions into the nuclear genome, and with topoisomerase I recognition sites. Papaya offers numerous advantages as a system for fruit-tree functional genomics, and this draft genome sequence provides the foundation for revealing the basis of Carica's distinguishing morpho-physiological, medicinal and nutritional properties.
TL;DR: The free radical scavenging (antioxidant) activities of these plants probably contribute to the effectiveness of the above plants in malaria therapy.
Abstract: Purpose : Oxidative stress has been shown to play an important role in the development of anaemia in malaria. Indeed, increase in total antioxidant status has been shown to be important in recovery from malaria. The antioxidant activities of four medicinal plants traditionally used in the treatment of malaria in southwestern Nigeria were determined. Methods : The ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Carica papaya Linn. [Caricaceae] , stem bark of Magnifera indica Linn. [Anacardiaceae], leaves of Psidium guajava Linn. [Myrtaceae] and the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina Del. [Compositae], were used in the present study. The plant parts commonly used in the locality in malaria therapy were employed in this study. The plants were screened for the presence of phytochemicals and, their effect on 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) was used to determine their free radical scavenging activity. Results : Phytochemical screening of the plants showed the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins, tannins and reducing sugars. M. indica did not contain cardiac glycosides and alkaloids while, P. guajava also showed the absence of alkaloids and anthraquinones. Anthraquinones was similarly absent from V. amygdalina. Concentrations of the plant extracts required for 50% inhibition of DPPH radical scavenging effect (IC 50 ) were recorded as 0.04 mg/ml, 0.313 mg/ml, 0.58 mg/ml, 2.30 mg/ml and 0.054 mg/ml for P. guajava, M. Indica, C. papaya, V. amygdalina and Vitamin C, respectively. Conclusion : All the plants showed potent inhibition of DPPH radical scavenging activity, P. guajava being the most potent. The free radical scavenging (antioxidant) activities of these plants probably contribute to the effectiveness of the above plants in malaria therapy.
TL;DR: Overproduction of citrate was shown to result in aluminum tolerance in transgenic tobacco and papaya plants, and organic acid excretion has been correlated with Aluminum tolerance in higher plants.
Abstract: Aluminum when in soluble form, as found in acidic soils that comprise about 40 percent of the world's arable land, is toxic to many crops. Organic acid excretion has been correlated with aluminum tolerance in higher plants. Overproduction of citrate was shown to result in aluminum tolerance in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and papaya (Carica papaya) plants.
TL;DR: Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp.
Abstract: This paper is based on ethnobotanical interviews conducted from 1996–2000 in Trinidad and Tobago with thirty male and female respondents. A non-experimental validation was conducted on the plants used for urinary problems and diabetes mellitus: This is a preliminary step to establish that the plants used are safe or effective, to help direct clinical trials, and to inform Caribbean physicians of the plants' known properties to avoid counter-prescribing. The following plants are used to treat diabetes: Antigonon leptopus, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cocos nucifera, Gomphrena globosa, Laportea aestuans, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Phyllanthus urinaria and Spiranthes acaulis. Apium graviolens is used as a heart tonic and for low blood pressure. Bixa orellana, Bontia daphnoides, Cuscuta americana and Gomphrena globosa are used for jaundice. The following plants are used for hypertension: Aloe vera, Annona muricata, Artocarpus altilis, Bixa orellana, Bidens alba, Bidens pilosa, Bonta daphnoides, Carica papaya, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Cola nitida, Crescentia cujete, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus sabdariffa, Kalanchoe pinnata, Morus alba, Nopalea cochinellifera, Ocimum campechianum, Passiflora quadrangularis, Persea americana and Tamarindus indicus. The plants used for kidney problems are Theobroma cacao, Chamaesyce hirta, Flemingia strobilifera, Peperomia rotundifolia, Petiveria alliacea, Nopalea cochinellifera, Apium graveolens, Cynodon dactylon, Eleusine indica, Gomphrena globosa, Pityrogramma calomelanos and Vetiveria zizanioides. Plants are also used for gall stones and for cooling. Chamaesyce hirta, Cissus verticillata, Kalanchoe pinnata, Peperomia spp., Portulaca oleraceae, Scoparia dulcis, and Zea mays have sufficient evidence to support their traditional use for urinary problems, "cooling" and high cholesterol. Eggplant extract as a hypocholesterolemic agent has some support but needs more study. The plants used for hypertension, jaundice and diabetes that may be safe and justify more formal evaluation are Annona squamosa, Aloe vera, Apium graveolens, Bidens alba, Carica papaya, Catharanthus roseus, Cecropia peltata, Citrus paradisi, Hibsicus sabdariffa, Momordica charantia, Morus alba, Persea americana, Phyllanthus urinaria, Tamarindus indicus and Tournefortia hirsutissima. Several of the plants are used for more than one condition and further trials should take this into account.
TL;DR: Bananas contained higher concentrations of lutein than of the provitamin A pigments, α- and β-carotene, and papayas contained 9% of the dietary reference intake (DRI) for Cu, 6–8% ofThe DRI for Mg, but less than 3% for other minerals.
Abstract: Banana (Musa sp.) and papaya (Carica papaya) cultivars were harvested from different locations throughout Hawaii and analyzed for vitamin C (ascorbic acid), provitamin A (β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin), and mineral composition. Dwarf Brazilian (“apple”) bananas had almost three times more vitamin C (12.7 mg/100 g fresh weight) than Williams fruit (4.5 mg/100 g). Also, Dwarf Brazilian bananas had 96.9 μg β-carotene and 104.9 μg α-carotene/100 g, whereas Williams fruit averaged 55.7 μg β-carotene and 84.0 μg α-carotene/100 g. Bananas contained higher concentrations of lutein than of the provitamin A pigments, α- and β-carotene. Papaya vitamin C content was 51.2 mg/100 g, with no differences among cultivars. Papaya provitamin A carotenoids averaged 232.3 μg β-carotene and 594.3 μg β-cryptoxanthin/100 g, and vitamin A ranged from 18.7 to 74.0 μg RAE/100 g. Lycopene was not detected in the yellow-fleshed cultivars, Kapoho, Laie Gold, and Rainbow, but the red-fleshed Sunrise and SunUp fruit contained 1350–3674 μg lycopene/100 g. Dwarf Brazilian bananas had higher P, Ca, Mg, Mn, and Zn contents than Williams fruit. The average K content for Hawaii's bananas was 330.6 mg/100 g. Papayas (100 g) contained 9% of the dietary reference intake (DRI) for Cu, 6–8% of the DRI for Mg, but less than 3% of the DRI for other minerals.
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