Topic

# Categorical variable

About: Categorical variable is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 13146 publications have been published within this topic receiving 665567 citations. The topic is also known as: categorical scale of measurement & categorical measurement scale.

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TL;DR: A general statistical methodology for the analysis of multivariate categorical data arising from observer reliability studies is presented and tests for interobserver bias are presented in terms of first-order marginal homogeneity and measures of interob server agreement are developed as generalized kappa-type statistics.

Abstract: This paper presents a general statistical methodology for the analysis of multivariate categorical data arising from observer reliability studies. The procedure essentially involves the construction of functions of the observed proportions which are directed at the extent to which the observers agree among themselves and the construction of test statistics for hypotheses involving these functions. Tests for interobserver bias are presented in terms of first-order marginal homogeneity and measures of interobserver agreement are developed as generalized kappa-type statistics. These procedures are illustrated with a clinical diagnosis example from the epidemiological literature.

56,227 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the effects of predictor scaling on the coefficients of regression equations are investigated. But, they focus mainly on the effect of predictors scaling on coefficients of regressions.

Abstract: Introduction Interactions between Continuous Predictors in Multiple Regression The Effects of Predictor Scaling on Coefficients of Regression Equations Testing and Probing Three-Way Interactions Structuring Regression Equations to Reflect Higher Order Relationships Model and Effect Testing with Higher Order Terms Interactions between Categorical and Continuous Variables Reliability and Statistical Power Conclusion Some Contrasts Between ANOVA and MR in Practice

27,846 citations

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01 Jan 1985

TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a model for estimating the effect size from a series of experiments using a fixed effect model and a general linear model, and combine these two models to estimate the effect magnitude.

Abstract: Preface. Introduction. Data Sets. Tests of Statistical Significance of Combined Results. Vote-Counting Methods. Estimation of a Single Effect Size: Parametric and Nonparametric Methods. Parametric Estimation of Effect Size from a Series of Experiments. Fitting Parametric Fixed Effect Models to Effect Sizes: Categorical Methods. Fitting Parametric Fixed Effect Models to Effect Sizes: General Linear Models. Random Effects Models for Effect Sizes. Multivariate Models for Effect Sizes. Combining Estimates of Correlation Coefficients. Diagnostic Procedures for Research Synthesis Models. Clustering Estimates of Effect Magnitude. Estimation of Effect Size When Not All Study Outcomes Are Observed. Meta-Analysis in the Physical and Biological Sciences. Appendix. References. Index.

9,755 citations

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01 Jan 1999

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors proposed a multilevel regression model to estimate within-and between-group correlations using a combination of within-group correlation and cross-group evidence.

Abstract: Preface second edition Preface to first edition Introduction Multilevel analysis Probability models This book Prerequisites Notation Multilevel Theories, Multi-Stage Sampling and Multilevel Models Dependence as a nuisance Dependence as an interesting phenomenon Macro-level, micro-level, and cross-level relations Glommary Statistical Treatment of Clustered Data Aggregation Disaggregation The intraclass correlation Within-group and between group variance Testing for group differences Design effects in two-stage samples Reliability of aggregated variables Within-and between group relations Regressions Correlations Estimation of within-and between-group correlations Combination of within-group evidence Glommary The Random Intercept Model Terminology and notation A regression model: fixed effects only Variable intercepts: fixed or random parameters? When to use random coefficient models Definition of the random intercept model More explanatory variables Within-and between-group regressions Parameter estimation 'Estimating' random group effects: posterior means Posterior confidence intervals Three-level random intercept models Glommary The Hierarchical Linear Model Random slopes Heteroscedasticity Do not force ?01 to be 0! Interpretation of random slope variances Explanation of random intercepts and slopes Cross-level interaction effects A general formulation of fixed and random parts Specification of random slope models Centering variables with random slopes? Estimation Three or more levels Glommary Testing and Model Specification Tests for fixed parameters Multiparameter tests for fixed effects Deviance tests More powerful tests for variance parameters Other tests for parameters in the random part Confidence intervals for parameters in the random part Model specification Working upward from level one Joint consideration of level-one and level-two variables Concluding remarks on model specification Glommary How Much Does the Model Explain? Explained variance Negative values of R2? Definition of the proportion of explained variance in two-level models Explained variance in three-level models Explained variance in models with random slopes Components of variance Random intercept models Random slope models Glommary Heteroscedasticity Heteroscedasticity at level one Linear variance functions Quadratic variance functions Heteroscedasticity at level two Glommary Missing Data General issues for missing data Implications for design Missing values of the dependent variable Full maximum likelihood Imputation The imputation method Putting together the multiple results Multiple imputations by chained equations Choice of the imputation model Glommary Assumptions of the Hierarchical Linear Model Assumptions of the hierarchical linear model Following the logic of the hierarchical linear model Include contextual effects Check whether variables have random effects Explained variance Specification of the fixed part Specification of the random part Testing for heteroscedasticity What to do in case of heteroscedasticity Inspection of level-one residuals Residuals at level two Influence of level-two units More general distributional assumptions Glommary Designing Multilevel Studies Some introductory notes on power Estimating a population mean Measurement of subjects Estimating association between variables Cross-level interaction effects Allocating treatment to groups or individuals Exploring the variance structure The intraclass correlation Variance parameters Glommary Other Methods and Models Bayesian inference Sandwich estimators for standard errors Latent class models Glommary Imperfect Hierarchies A two-level model with a crossed random factor Crossed random effects in three-level models Multiple membership models Multiple membership multiple classification models Glommary Survey Weights Model-based and design-based inference Descriptive and analytic use of surveys Two kinds of weights Choosing between model-based and design-based analysis Inclusion probabilities and two-level weights Exploring the informativeness of the sampling design Example: Metacognitive strategies as measured in the PISA study Sampling design Model-based analysis of data divided into parts Inclusion of weights in the model How to assign weights in multilevel models Appendix. Matrix expressions for the single-level estimators Glommary Longitudinal Data Fixed occasions The compound symmetry models Random slopes The fully multivariate model Multivariate regression analysis Explained variance Variable occasion designs Populations of curves Random functions Explaining the functions 27415.2.4 Changing covariates Autocorrelated residuals Glommary Multivariate Multilevel Models Why analyze multiple dependent variables simultaneously? The multivariate random intercept model Multivariate random slope models Glommary Discrete Dependent Variables Hierarchical generalized linear models Introduction to multilevel logistic regression Heterogeneous proportions The logit function: Log-odds The empty model The random intercept model Estimation Aggregation Further topics on multilevel logistic regression Random slope model Representation as a threshold model Residual intraclass correlation coefficient Explained variance Consequences of adding effects to the model Ordered categorical variables Multilevel event history analysis Multilevel Poisson regression Glommary Software Special software for multilevel modeling HLM MLwiN The MIXOR suite and SuperMix Modules in general-purpose software packages SAS procedures VARCOMP, MIXED, GLIMMIX, and NLMIXED R Stata SPSS, commands VARCOMP and MIXED Other multilevel software PinT Optimal Design MLPowSim Mplus Latent Gold REALCOM WinBUGS References Index

9,571 citations

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TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a detailed, worked-through example drawn from psychology, management, and sociology studies illustrate the procedures, pitfalls, and extensions of CFA methodology.

Abstract: "With its emphasis on practical and conceptual aspects, rather than mathematics or formulas, this accessible book has established itself as the go-to resource on confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Detailed, worked-through examples drawn from psychology, management, and sociology studies illustrate the procedures, pitfalls, and extensions of CFA methodology. The text shows how to formulate, program, and interpret CFA models using popular latent variable software packages (LISREL, Mplus, EQS, SAS/CALIS); understand the similarities and differences between CFA and exploratory factor analysis (EFA); and report results from a CFA study. It is filled with useful advice and tables that outline the procedures. The companion website offers data and program syntax files for most of the research examples, as well as links to CFA-related resources. New to This Edition *Updated throughout to incorporate important developments in latent variable modeling. *Chapter on Bayesian CFA and multilevel measurement models. *Addresses new topics (with examples): exploratory structural equation modeling, bifactor analysis, measurement invariance evaluation with categorical indicators, and a new method for scaling latent variables. *Utilizes the latest versions of major latent variable software packages"--

7,576 citations