About: Cathode ray is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 8958 publications have been published within this topic receiving 64945 citations. The topic is also known as: electron beam & e-beam.
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23 Jun 1989
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a detailed review of the physical processes leading to breakdown and discharge in a Pulsed-Vacuum Discharge (SVD) system.
Abstract: 1. Introduction.- 2. Review of Vacuum Breakdown and Discharge Studies.- 2.1 The Electrode Surface in a Vacuum Discharge.- 2.1.1 Preparation of Electrodes.- 2.1.2 Determination of Micropoint Parameters.- 2.1.3 Effect of Emission from Non-metallic Inclusions.- 2.2 Vacuum Insulation, Properties and Breakdown.- 2.2.1 Prebreakdown Phenomena.- 2.2.2 Microdischarges.- 2.2.3 The Breakdown Voltage.- 2.3 Kinetics of Vacuum Electrical Breakdown.- 2.3.1 Characteristic Times of Breakdown.- 2.3.2 Role of Electrodes in the Development of Breakdown.- 2.3.3 X-Ray Pulse at Breakdown.- 2.4 Field Electron Emission to Vacuum Breakdown Transition.- 2.5 Hypotheses on Vacuum Breakdown Initiation.- 2.5.1 Physical Processes Leading to Vacuum Breakdown.- 2.5.2 Cathode-Initiated Breakdown.- 2.5.3 Anode-Initiated Breakdown.- 2.5.4 Comparison between Cathode and Anode Mechanisms for Breakdown Initiation.- 2.5.5 Microparticle-Initiated Breakdown.- 2.6 Spark Stage of Vacuum Breakdown.- 2.7 The Discharge Arc Stage. The Cathode Spot.- 2.7.1 Physical Properties of the Cathode Spot.- 2.7.2 Cathode-Spot Models.- 3. Experimental Equipment and Techniques.- 3.1 Electrical Measurement Techniques.- 3.1.1 High-Voltage, Nanosecond Pulse Generators.- 3.1.2 Current and Voltage Pulse Recording.- 3.2 Diagnostics of the Radiation that Accompanies Breakdown.- 3.2.1 Electro-optical Recording of the Light Emission.- 3.2.2 Photoelectrical Recording of the Light Emission.- 3.2.3 Spectral Investigation of the Discharge Plasma Radiation.- 3.2.4 X-Radiation Recording.- 3.3 Vacuum Equipment.- 3.4 Preparation and Examination of Electrode Surfaces.- 4. Pulsed Nanosecond Breakdown of Vacuum Gaps.- 4.1 Time Characteristics of the Pulsed Vacuum Breakdown.- 4.1.1 The Influence of Electrode Conditioning.- 4.1.2 The Influence of the Vacuum.- 4.2 Study of Light Emission at Pulsed Breakdown.- 4.2.1 Single-Shot Investigations.- 4.2.2 The Continuous-Operation Regime.- 4.2.3 Comparison with Other Data.- 4.3 Electrode Erosion Studies.- 4.3.1 Cathode Erosion.- 4.3.2 The Tracer Method.- 4.3.3 Anode Erosion.- 4.4 Nature of the Discharge Current at Breakdown.- 4.5 Mechanism of Pulsed Breakdown of Vacuum Gaps.- 4.5.1 The Role of the Cathode.- 4.5.2 The Cathode Plasma and the Electron Current.- 4.5.3 Anode Phenomena.- 5. Cathode Processes in a Pulsed Vacuum Discharge.- 5.1 EEE Initiation by High-Density FEE Current.- 5.1.1 Experimental Conditions.- 5.1.2 Description of EEE Current.- 5.1.3 The Point Explosion Delay Time.- 5.1.4 Calculation of the Emitter Heating.- 5.1.5 The Vacuum Discharge Delay Time.- 5.2 Erosion of Point Cathodes.- 5.2.1 The Fast Current Rise.- 5.2.2 The Slow Current Rise.- 5.2.3 The Point Erosion Rate.- 5.2.4 Erosion Due to Joule Heating.- 5.2.5 Comparison with Experiment.- 5.3 EEE Current Density Measurements.- 5.3.1 Current Density of a Point Cathode.- 5.3.2 Current Density from a Massive Cathode.- 5.3.3 Measurements Based on Erosion.- 5.3.4 Experimental Data.- 5.4 Microstructure of the Cathode Surface.- 5.4.1 Erosion Traces in SEM.- 5.4.2 The Field Enhancement Factor.- 5.5 The Contribution of Droplet Ejection to Cathode Erosion.- 5.6 Pressure in the Emission Zone.- 5.7 Formation of Cathode Microstructure.- 6. Cathode Flare Plasma.- 6.1 Velocity of CF Plasma Expansion.- 6.1.1 The Grounded Grid and Collector Method.- 6.1.2 The Photoelectric Method.- 6.1.3 The Transverse Magnetic Field Method.- 6.1.4 The Method of the Anode Erosion Mark.- 6.2 CF Plasma Parameters.- 6.2.1 CF Plasma Density.- 6.2.2 CF Plasma Composition and Temperature.- 6.3 EEE Current Effect on the Dynamics of the Plasma Light Emission.- 6.4 A Model for CF Plasma Expansion.- 6.4.1 The Adiabatic Model.- 6.4.2 MHD Calculation.- 6.4.3 The Model of an Ideal Plasma.- 7. Current Passage in the Spark Stage of Breakdown.- 7.1 Electron Emission from CF Plasma into Vacuum.- 7.2 Electron Emission from CF Plasma, Experimental Studies.- 7.3 Current-Voltage Characteristics of a Single-CF Diode.- 7.4 Dynamics of the CF Electron Emission Boundary.- 7.5 CF Plasma Potential Distribution and Plasma Emissive Properties.- 7.5.1 Probe Measurements of the CF Plasma Potential.- 7.5.2 The Nature of the Instability of CF Emission.- 7.6 Spark Current Between Broad-Area Electrodes.- 7.6.1 Calculation of the Spark Current Rise.- 7.6.2 The Role of Cathode and Anode Flares.- 8. Formation of New Emission Centers on the Cathode.- 8.1 Mechanisms of New EC Formation Under the Plasma.- 8.1.1 Mechanism of the Explosion of Micropoints.- 8.1.2 Mechanism of the Explosion of the Liquid Neck.- 8.1.3 Mechanism of the Breakdown of Non-metallic Inclusions.- 8.2 New EC Formation and Operation Under Cathode Plasma.- 8.2.1 Experiments Without Application of a Magnetic Field.- 8.2.2 Effect of Transverse Magnetic Field on New EC Formation.- 8.2.3 Results and Discussion.- 8.3 "Screening" Effect and Electron Beam Structure in a Diode.- 8.3.1 "Screening" Effect.- 8.3.2 Influence of Neighbouring CFs on the Electron Beam Structure in the Diode.- 9. Anode Processes in the Spark Stage of Vacuum Breakdown.- 9.1 Anode Heat Conditions.- 9.1.1 Power Density Deposited at the Anode.- 9.1.2 The Anode Temperature.- 9.2 Surface Structure of the Anode in the Discharge Zone.- 9.2.1 Summary of Previous Work.- 9.2.2 Metallographic Studies.- 9.2.3 Electron-Microscopic Studies.- 9.2.4 Mechanisms of the Anode Surface Damage.- 9.3 Formation of Anode Flares.- 9.3.1 Conditions for AF Formation, Its Composition and Temperature.- 9.3.2 The Expansion Velocity of AF.- 9.4 X-Radiation Generated at the Anode.- 9.4.1 X-Radiation on Discharging a Line.- 9.4.2 X-Radiation on Discharging a Capacitor.- 10. Fast Processes at DC Breakdown of Vacuum Gaps.- 10.1 Electrical Study of DC Breakdown.- 10.1.1 Electric Circuit.- 10.1.2 Prebreakdown Current and Breakdown Voltage.- 10.1.3 The Current Rise Time at Breakdown.- 10.1.4 X-Radiation and Electrode Erosion at Breakdown.- 10.2 Optical Studies.- 10.2.1 Determination of the Time of Appearance of Light.- 10.2.2 Electro-optical Breakdown Studies.- 10.3 Comparison with Results of Other Investigations.- 10.4 EEE Initiation at DC Breakdown.- 10.4.1 EEE Initiation under Pure Conditions.- 10.4.2 EEE Initiation and the Total Voltage Effect.- 10.4.3 Criteria for Vacuum Breakdown and EEE Initiation.- 11. Nonstationary Processes in the Vacuum Arc Cathode Spot.- 11.1 The Motion of Vacuum Arc Cathode Spots.- 11.1.1 The Effect of Surface Condition.- 11.1.2 The Influence of a Magnetic Field.- 11.1.3 Spontaneous Formation of Cathode Spots in Pulsed Arc Discharges.- 11.2 Response of the Vacuum Arc to Current Transients.- 11.2.1 Experimental Equipment and Technique.- 11.2.2 Results.- 11.3 Vacuum Arcs at Threshold Currents.- 11.3.1 The Threshold Current of a Vacuum Arc.- 11.3.2 Cathode Spot Current Density.- 11.4 Numerical Simulation of Processes in an Explosive Emission Center.- 11.5 Explosive Electron Emission and the Vacuum Arc Cathode Spot.- 12. Pulsed Electrical Discharge in Vacuum at Cryogenic Electrode Temperatures.- 12.1 Field Electron Emission at Low Cathode Temperatures.- 12.1.1 Effect of Superconductivity on FEE Current.- 12.1.2 The Nottingham Effect and Superconductivity.- 12.1.3 Other Emission Effects.- 12.2 Field Emission Current Preceding the Explosion of a Point.- 12.3 Characteristics of the Vacuum Discharge at Cryogenic Temperatures.- 12.3.1 Experimental Conditions.- 12.3.2 Experimental Results.- 12.4 Vacuum Discharge Between Electrodes Made of High-Temperature Superconductors.- 12.4.1 General Notions.- 12.4.2 FEE from High-Temperature Superconducting Cathodes.- 12.4.3 Vacuum Discharge.- References.
TL;DR: In this paper, the design, construction, operation, and performance of a spin polarized electron source utilizing photoemission from negative electron affinity (NEA) GaAs are presented in detail.
Abstract: The design, construction, operation, and performance of a spin polarized electron source utilizing photoemission from negative electron affinity (NEA) GaAs are presented in detail. A polarization of 43±2% is produced using NEA GaAs (100). The polarization can be easily modulated without affecting other characteristics of the electron beam. The electron beam intensity depends on the intensity of the exciting radiation at 1.6 eV; beam currents of 20 μA/mW are obtained. The source is electron optically bright; the emittance phase space (energy‐area‐solid angle product) is 0.043 eV mm2 sr. The light optics, electron optics, and cathode preparation including the GaAs cleaning and activation to NEA are discussed in depth. The origin of the spin polarization in the photoexcitation process is reviewed and new equations describing the depolarization of photoelectrons in the emission process are derived. Quantum yield and polarization measurements for both NEA and positive electron affinity surfaces are reported. T...
TL;DR: A vector scan electron beam system with a LaB6 cathode has been equipped with a temperature controlled reservoir to supply vapors into a differentially pumped sample chamber as discussed by the authors, where the substrate is mounted on a stage which can be cooled or heated in the range of −40 to +110°C.
Abstract: A finely focused electron beam is used as a source of energy to decompose molecules, e.g., organometallics or hydrocarbons, adsorbed on the surface of a substrate. Films deposited by these means can be used as etch mask for reactive ion etching, as an absorber for various types of radiation, or directly as part of a device structure. A vector scan electron beam system with a LaB6 cathode has been equipped with a temperature controlled reservoir to supply vapors into a differentially pumped sample chamber. The substrate is mounted on a stage which can be cooled or heated in the range of −40 to +110 °C. The ability to utilize backscattered electron micro‐ scopy is maintained. Area, line, and spot deposition rates have been measured for tungsten hexacarbonyl [W(CO)6] and dimethyl–gold–trifluoro–acetylacetonate [Me2Au(tfac)] at various fluxes, sample temperatures, and current densities. Three‐dimensional buildup of tips and free standing lines across holes in membranes and resolution better than 0.25 μm have ...
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