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About: Cathodoluminescence is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 8798 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 153486 citation(s). The topic is also known as: cathode luminescence.

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Abstract: This review discusses how low-energy, valence excitations created by swift electrons can render information on the optical response of structured materials with unmatched spatial resolution. Electron microscopes are capable of focusing electron beams on sub-nanometer spots and probing the target response either by analyzing electron energy losses or by detecting emitted radiation. Theoretical frameworks suited to calculate the probability of energy loss and light emission (cathodoluminescence) are revisited and compared with experimental results. More precisely, a quantum-mechanical description of the interaction between the electrons and the sample is discussed, followed by a powerful classical dielectric approach that can be in practice applied to more complex systems. We assess the conditions under which classical and quantum-mechanical formulations are equivalent. The excitation of collective modes such as plasmons is studied in bulk materials, planar surfaces, and nanoparticles. Light emission induced by the electrons is shown to constitute an excellent probe of plasmons, combining sub-nanometer resolution in the position of the electron beam with nanometer resolution in the emitted wavelength. Both electron energy-loss and cathodoluminescence spectroscopies performed in a scanning mode of operation yield snap shots of plasmon modes in nanostructures with fine spatial detail as compared to other existing imaging techniques, thus providing an ideal tool for nanophotonics studies.

1,104 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Photoluminescence and cathodoluminescence (CL) spectra of stoichiometric and oxygen-deficient ZnO films grown on sapphire were examined. It was found that the intensities of the green and yellow emissions depend on the width of the free-carrier depletion region at the particle surface; the thinner the width, the larger the intensity. Experimental results and spectral analyses suggest that the mechanism responsible for the green (yellow) emission is the recombination of a delocalized electron close to the conduction band with a deeply trapped hole in the single ionized oxygen vacancy Vo+ (the single negatively charged interstitial oxygen ion Oi−) center in the particle.

958 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Combinatorial laser molecular-beam epitaxy method was employed to fabricate epitaxial ZnO thin films doped with all the 3d transition metal (TM) ions in a high throughput fashion The solubility behavior of TM ions was discussed from the viewpoints of the ionic radius and valence state The magneto-optical responses coincident with absorption spectra were observed for Mn- and Co-doped samples Cathodoluminescence spectra were studied for Cr-, Mn-, Fe-, and Co-doped samples, among which Cr-doped ZnO showed two sharp peaks at 297 eV and 371 eV, respectively, at the expense of the exciton emission peak of pure ZnO at 325 eV Different magnetoresistance behavior was observed for the samples codoped with n-type carriers Ferromagnetism was not observed for Cr- to Cu-doped samples down to 3 K

577 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Light emitting diodes based on n-ZnO nanorods combined with different technologies (hybrid technologies) are suggested and the recent electrical, as well as electro-optical, characteristics of these LEDs are shown and discussed.
Abstract: Zinc oxide (ZnO), with its excellent luminescent properties and the ease of growth of its nanostructures, holds promise for the development of photonic devices. The recent advances in growth of ZnO nanorods are discussed. Results from both low temperature and high temperature growth approaches are presented. The techniques which are presented include metal?organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD), vapour phase epitaxy (VPE), pulse laser deposition (PLD), vapour?liquid?solid (VLS), aqueous chemical growth (ACG) and finally the electrodeposition technique as an example of a selective growth approach. Results from structural as well as optical properties of a variety of ZnO nanorods are shown and analysed using different techniques, including high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), photoluminescence (PL) and cathodoluminescence (CL), for both room temperature and for low temperature performance. These results indicate that the grown ZnO nanorods possess reproducible and interesting optical properties. Results on obtaining p-type doping in ZnO micro-?and nanorods are also demonstrated using PLD. Three independent indications were found for p-type conducting, phosphorus-doped ZnO nanorods: first, acceptor-related CL peaks, second, opposite transfer characteristics of back-gate field effect transistors using undoped and phosphorus doped wire channels, and finally, rectifying I?V characteristics of ZnO:P nanowire/ZnO:Ga p?n junctions. Then light emitting diodes (LEDs) based on n-ZnO nanorods combined with different technologies (hybrid technologies) are suggested and the recent electrical, as well as electro-optical, characteristics of these LEDs are shown and discussed. The hybrid LEDs reviewed and discussed here are mainly presented for two groups: those based on n-ZnO nanorods and p-type crystalline substrates, and those based on n-ZnO nanorods and p-type amorphous substrates. Promising electroluminescence characteristics aimed at the development of white LEDs are demonstrated. Although some of the presented LEDs show visible emission for applied biases in excess of 10 V, optimized structures are expected to provide the same emission at much lower voltage. Finally, lasing from ZnO nanorods is briefly reviewed. An example of a recent whispering gallery mode (WGM) lasing from ZnO is demonstrated as a way to enhance the stimulated emission from small size structures.

560 citations

01 Jan 1990
Abstract: 1. Introduction.- 2. Introduction to Basic Concepts of Solid State Physics.- 3. Luminescence Phenomena.- 4. Cathodoluminescence.- 5. Cathodoluminescence Analysis Techniques.- 6. Applications.- 7. Semiconductors.- 8. Phosphors.- 9. Ceramics.- 10. Minerals.- 11. Future Developments.- Books on Solid State Physics.- Books on Optical Properties of Inorganic Solids.- Books Devoted to Scanning Electron Microscopy.- References.

513 citations

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