Topic

# Cavitation

About: Cavitation is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 12821 publications have been published within this topic receiving 208658 citations.

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TL;DR: The first analysis of a problem in cavitation and bubble dynamics was made by Rayleigh (1917), who solved the problem of the collapse of an empty cavity in a large mass of liquid.

Abstract: The first analysis of a problem in cavitation and bubble dynamics was made by Rayleigh (1917), who solved the problem of the collapse of an empty cavity in a large mass of liquid. Rayleigh also considered in this same paper the problem of a gas-filled cavity under the assumption that the gas undergoes isothermal com pression. His interest in these problems presumably arose from concern with cavitation and cavitation damage. With neglect of surface tension and liquid viscosity and with the assumption of liquid incompressibility, Rayleigh showed from the momentum equation that the bubble boundary R(t) obeyed the relation RR+W<)2 = p(R)oo, p (1.1)

1,710 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present the full cavitation model, which accounts for all the first-order effects of cavitation and is called as the full-cavitation model and the phase change rate expressions are derived from a reduced form of Rayleigh-Plesset equation for bubble dynamics.

Abstract: Cavitating flows entail phase change and hence very large and steep density variations in the low pressure regions. These are also very sensitive to: (a) the formation and transport of vapor bubbles, (b) the turbulent fluctuations of pressure and velocity, and (c) the magnitude of noncondensible gases, which are dissolved or ingested in the operating liquid. The presented cavitation model accounts for all these first-order effects, and thus is named as the full cavitation model. The phase-change rate expressions are derived from a reduced form of Rayleigh-Plesset equation for bubble dynamics. These rates depend upon local flow conditions (pressure, velocities, turbulence) as well as fluid properties (saturation pressure, densities, and surface tension). The rate expressions employ two empirical constants, which have been calibrated with experimental data covering a very wide range of flow conditions, and do not require adjustments for different problems. The model has been implemented in an advanced, commercial, general-purpose CFD code, CFD-ACE+

1,329 citations

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TL;DR: Sonoluminescence spectra from silicone oil showed emission came from excited state C2 (Swan band transitions, d3IIg—a3II�), which has been modeled with synthetic spectra as a function of rotational and vibrational temperatures.

Abstract: Ultrasonic irradiation of liquids causes acoustic cavitation: the formation, growth, and implosive collapse of bubbles. Bubble collapse during cavitation generates transient hot spots responsible for high-energy chemistry and emission of light. Determination of the temperatures reached in a cavitating bubble has remained a difficult experimental problem. As a spectroscopic probe of the cavitation event, sonoluminescence provides a solution. Sonoluminescence spectra from silicone oil were reported and analyzed. The observed emission came from excited state C2 (Swan band transitions, d3IIg—a3IIµ), which has been modeled with synthetic spectra as a function of rotational and vibrational temperatures. From comparison of synthetic to observed spectra, the effective cavitation temperature was found to be 5075 ± 156 K.

1,020 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, three regimes of liquid flow over a body are defined, namely: (a) noncavitating flow, (b) cavitating flow with a relatively small number of cavitation bubbles in the field of flow, and (c) caviting flow with one large cavity about the body.

Abstract: Three regimes of liquid flow over a body are defined,
namely: (a) noncavitating flow; (b) cavitating flow with a
relatively small number of cavitation bubbles in the field
of flow; and (c) cavitating flow with a single large cavity
about the body. The assumption is made that, for the
second regime of flow, the pressure coefficient in the flow
field is no different from that in the noncavitating flow.
On this basis, the equation of motion for the growth and
collapse of a cavitation bubble containing vapor is derived
and applied to experimental observations on such bubbles.
The limitations of this equation of motion are pointed
out, and include the effect of the finite rate of evaporation
and condensation, and compressibility of vapor and
liquid. A brief discussion of the role of "nuclei" in the
liquid in the rate of formation of cavitation bubbles is
also given.

960 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a numerical method was proposed to solve the problem of balloon bubble collapse near a plane solid wall, using finite time steps and an iterative technique for applying the boundary conditions at infinity directly to the liquid at a finite distance from the free surface.

Abstract: Vapor bubble collapse problems lacking spherical symmetry are solved here using a numerical method designed especially for these problems. Viscosity and compressibility in the liquid are neglected. The method uses finite time steps and features an iterative technique for applying the boundary conditions at infinity directly to the liquid at a finite distance from the free surface. Two specific cases of initially spherical bubbles collapsing near a plane solid wall were simulated: a bubble initially in contact with the wall, and a bubble initially half its radius from the wall at the closest point. It is shown that the bubble develops a jet directed towards the wall rather early in the collapse history. Free surface shapes and velocities are presented at various stages in the collapse. Velocities are scaled like (Δp/ρ)^1/2 where ρ is the density of the liquid and Δp is the constant difference between the ambient liquid pressure and the pressure in the cavity. For Δp/ρ = 10^6 (cm/sec)^2 ~ 1 atm./density of water the jet had a speed of about 130 m/sec in the first case and 170 m/sec in the second when it struck the opposite side of the bubble. Such jet velocities are of a magnitude which can explain cavitation damage. The jet develops so early in the bubble collapse history that compressibility effects in the liquid and the vapor are not important.

890 citations