About: Cell culture is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 133361 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 5364150 citation(s). The topic is also known as: cell culture techniques.
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TL;DR: The derivation of a number of tissue culture cell lines which secrete anti-sheep red blood cell (SRBC) antibodies is described here, made by fusion of a mouse myeloma and mouse spleen cells from an immunised donor.
Abstract: THE manufacture of predefined specific antibodies by means of permanent tissue culture cell lines is of general interest. There are at present a considerable number of permanent cultures of myeloma cells1,2 and screening procedures have been used to reveal antibody activity in some of them. This, however, is not a satisfactory source of monoclonal antibodies of predefined specificity. We describe here the derivation of a number of tissue culture cell lines which secrete anti-sheep red blood cell (SRBC) antibodies. The cell lines are made by fusion of a mouse myeloma and mouse spleen cells from an immunised donor. To understand the expression and interactions of the Ig chains from the parental lines, fusion experiments between two known mouse myeloma lines were carried out.
TL;DR: The establishment in tissue culture of pluripotent cell lines which have been isolated directly from in vitro cultures of mouse blastocysts are reported, able to differentiate either in vitro or after innoculation into a mouse as a tumour in vivo.
Abstract: Pluripotential cells are present in a mouse embryo until at least an early post-implantation stage, as shown by their ability to take part hi the formation of chimaeric animals1 and to form teratocarcinomas2. Until now it has not been possible to establish progressively growing cultures of these cells in vitro, and cell lines have only been obtained after teratocarcinoma formation in vivo. We report here the establishment in tissue culture of pluripotent cell lines which have been isolated directly from in vitro cultures of mouse blastocysts. These cells are able to differentiate either in vitro or after innoculation into a mouse as a tumour in vivo. They have a normal karyotype.
TL;DR: A series of recombinant genomes which directed expression of the enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) in mammalian cells provided a uniquely convenient system for monitoring the expression of foreign DNAs in tissue culture cells.
Abstract: We constructed a series of recombinant genomes which directed expression of the enzyme chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) in mammalian cells. The prototype recombinant in this series, pSV2-cat, consisted of the beta-lactamase gene and origin of replication from pBR322 coupled to a simian virus 40 (SV40) early transcription region into which CAT coding sequences were inserted. Readily measured levels of CAT accumulated within 48 h after the introduction of pSV2-cat DNA into African green monkey kidney CV-1 cells. Because endogenous CAT activity is not present in CV-1 or other mammalian cells, and because rapid, sensitive assays for CAT activity are available, these recombinants provided a uniquely convenient system for monitoring the expression of foreign DNAs in tissue culture cells. To demonstrate the usefulness of this system, we constructed derivatives of pSV2-cat from which part or all of the SV40 promoter region was removed. Deletion of one copy of the 72-base-pair repeat sequence in the SV40 promoter caused no significant decrease in CAT synthesis in monkey kidney CV-1 cells; however, an additional deletion of 50 base pairs from the second copy of the repeats reduced CAT synthesis to 11% of its level in the wild type. We also constructed a recombinant, pSV0-cat, in which the entire SV40 promoter region was removed and a unique HindIII site was substituted for the insertion of other promoter sequences.
01 Dec 1961-Experimental Cell Research
TL;DR: A consideration of the cause of the eventual degeneration of these strains leads to the hypothesis that non-cumulative external factors are excluded and that the phenomenon is attributable to intrinsic factors which are expressed as senescence at the cellular level.
Abstract: The isolation and characterization of 25 strains of human diploid fibroblasts derived from fetuses are described. Routine tissue culture techniques were employed. Other than maintenance of the diploid karyotype, ten other criteria serve to distinguish these strains from heteroploid cell lines. These include retention of sex chromatin, histotypical differentiation, inadaptability to suspended culture, non-malignant characteristics in vivo , finite limit of cultivation, similar virus spectrum to primary tissue, similar cell morphology to primary tissue, increased acid production compared to cell lines, retention of Coxsackie A9 receptor substance, and ease with which strains can be developed. Survival of cell strains at − 70 °C with retention of all characteristics insures an almost unlimited supply of any strain regardless of the fact that they degenerate after about 50 subcultivations and one year in culture. A consideration of the cause of the eventual degeneration of these strains leads to the hypothesis that non-cumulative external factors are excluded and that the phenomenon is attributable to intrinsic factors which are expressed as senescence at the cellular level. With these characteristics and their extremely broad virus spectrum, the use of diploid human cell strains for human virus vaccine production is suggested. In view of these observations a number of terms used by cell culturists are redefined.
TL;DR: A simple calcium phosphate transfection protocol and neo marker vectors that achieve highly efficient transformation of mammalian cells are described and linear DNA is almost inactive in mammalian cells.
Abstract: We describe a simple calcium phosphate transfection protocol and neo marker vectors that achieve highly efficient transformation of mammalian cells. In this protocol, the calcium phosphate-DNA complex is formed gradually in the medium during incubation with cells and precipitates on the cells. The crucial factors for obtaining efficient transformation are the pH (6.95) of the buffer used for the calcium phosphate precipitation, the CO2 level (3%) during the incubation of the DNA with the cells, and the amount (20 to 30 micrograms) and the form (circular) of DNA. In sharp contrast to the results with circular DNA, linear DNA is almost inactive. Under these conditions, 50% of mouse L(A9) cells can be stably transformed with pcDneo, a simian virus 40-based neo (neomycin resistance) marker vector. The NIH3T3, C127, CV1, BHK, CHO, and HeLa cell lines were transformed at efficiencies of 10 to 50% with this vector and the neo marker-incorporated pcD vectors that were used for the construction and transduction of cDNA expression libraries as well as for the expression of cloned cDNA in mammalian cells.
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