About: Cell wall is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 6366 publications have been published within this topic receiving 336957 citations. The topic is also known as: GO:0005618.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Recent discoveries have uncovered how plant cells synthesize wall polysaccharides, assemble them into a strong fibrous network and regulate wall expansion during cell growth.
Abstract: Plant cells encase themselves within a complex polysaccharide wall, which constitutes the raw material that is used to manufacture textiles, paper, lumber, films, thickeners and other products. The plant cell wall is also the primary source of cellulose, the most abundant and useful biopolymer on the Earth. The cell wall not only strengthens the plant body, but also has key roles in plant growth, cell differentiation, intercellular communication, water movement and defence. Recent discoveries have uncovered how plant cells synthesize wall polysaccharides, assemble them into a strong fibrous network and regulate wall expansion during cell growth.
TL;DR: In several species examined, the fine structure of the peptidoglycan significantly varies with the growth conditions, and the different models for the architecture are discussed with respect to structural and physical parameters.
Abstract: The peptidoglycan (murein) sacculus is a unique and essential structural element in the cell wall of most bacteria. Made of glycan strands cross-linked by short peptides, the sacculus forms a closed, bag-shaped structure surrounding the cytoplasmic membrane. There is a high diversity in the composition and sequence of the peptides in the peptidoglycan from different species. Furthermore, in several species examined, the fine structure of the peptidoglycan significantly varies with the growth conditions. Limited number of biophysical data on the thickness, elasticity and porosity of peptidoglycan are available. The different models for the architecture of peptidoglycan are discussed with respect to structural and physical parameters.
TL;DR: New developments in understanding pectin structure, function, and biosynthesis indicate that these polysaccharides have roles in both primary and secondary cell walls.
Abstract: Pectin is structurally and functionally the most complex polysaccharide in plant cell walls. Pectin has functions in plant growth, morphology, development, and plant defense and also serves as a gelling and stabilizing polymer in diverse food and specialty products and has positive effects on human health and multiple biomedical uses. Pectin is a family of galacturonic acid-rich polysaccharides including homogalacturonan, rhamnogalacturonan I, and the substituted galacturonans rhamnogalacturonan II (RG-II) and xylogalacturonan (XGA). Pectin biosynthesis is estimated to require at least 67 transferases including glycosyl-, methyl-, and acetyltransferases. New developments in understanding pectin structure, function, and biosynthesis indicate that these polysaccharides have roles in both primary and secondary cell walls. Manipulation of pectin synthesis is expected to impact diverse plant agronomical properties including plant biomass characteristics important for biofuel production.
TL;DR: The mechanisms for both sorting and targeting of proteins to the envelope of gram-positive bacteria are described and the functions of known surface proteins are reviewed.
Abstract: The cell wall envelope of gram-positive bacteria is a macromolecular, exoskeletal organelle that is assembled and turned over at designated sites. The cell wall also functions as a surface organelle that allows gram-positive pathogens to interact with their environment, in particular the tissues of the infected host. All of these functions require that surface proteins and enzymes be properly targeted to the cell wall envelope. Two basic mechanisms, cell wall sorting and targeting, have been identified. Cell well sorting is the covalent attachment of surface proteins to the peptidoglycan via a C-terminal sorting signal that contains a consensus LPXTG sequence. More than 100 proteins that possess cell wall-sorting signals, including the M proteins of Streptococcus pyogenes, protein A of Staphylococcus aureus, and several internalins of Listeria monocytogenes, have been identified. Cell wall targeting involves the noncovalent attachment of proteins to the cell surface via specialized binding domains. Several of these wall-binding domains appear to interact with secondary wall polymers that are associated with the peptidoglycan, for example teichoic acids and polysaccharides. Proteins that are targeted to the cell surface include muralytic enzymes such as autolysins, lysostaphin, and phage lytic enzymes. Other examples for targeted proteins are the surface S-layer proteins of bacilli and clostridia, as well as virulence factors required for the pathogenesis of L. monocytogenes (internalin B) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (PspA) infections. In this review we describe the mechanisms for both sorting and targeting of proteins to the envelope of gram-positive bacteria and review the functions of known surface proteins.
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