About: Cellular differentiation is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 90966 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 6099252 citation(s). The topic is also known as: Cellular differentiation & GO:0030154.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: Naive mesenchymal stem cells are shown here to specify lineage and commit to phenotypes with extreme sensitivity to tissue-level elasticity, consistent with the elasticity-insensitive commitment of differentiated cell types.
Abstract: Microenvironments appear important in stem cell lineage specification but can be difficult to adequately characterize or control with soft tissues. Naive mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are shown here to specify lineage and commit to phenotypes with extreme sensitivity to tissue-level elasticity. Soft matrices that mimic brain are neurogenic, stiffer matrices that mimic muscle are myogenic, and comparatively rigid matrices that mimic collagenous bone prove osteogenic. During the initial week in culture, reprogramming of these lineages is possible with addition of soluble induction factors, but after several weeks in culture, the cells commit to the lineage specified by matrix elasticity, consistent with the elasticity-insensitive commitment of differentiated cell types. Inhibition of nonmuscle myosin II blocks all elasticity-directed lineage specification-without strongly perturbing many other aspects of cell function and shape. The results have significant implications for understanding physical effects of the in vivo microenvironment and also for therapeutic uses of stem cells.
TL;DR: It is proposed that the metabolism of cancer cells, and indeed all proliferating cells, is adapted to facilitate the uptake and incorporation of nutrients into the biomass needed to produce a new cell.
Abstract: In contrast to normal differentiated cells, which rely primarily on mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation to generate the energy needed for cellular processes, most cancer cells instead rely on aerobic glycolysis, a phenomenon termed “the Warburg effect.” Aerobic glycolysis is an inefficient way to generate adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP), however, and the advantage it confers to cancer cells has been unclear. Here we propose that the metabolism of cancer cells, and indeed all proliferating cells, is adapted to facilitate the uptake and incorporation of nutrients into the biomass (e.g., nucleotides, amino acids, and lipids) needed to produce a new cell. Supporting this idea are recent studies showing that (i) several signaling pathways implicated in cell proliferation also regulate metabolic pathways that incorporate nutrients into biomass; and that (ii) certain cancer-associated mutations enable cancer cells to acquire and metabolize nutrients in a manner conducive to proliferation rather than efficient ATP production. A better understanding of the mechanistic links between cellular metabolism and growth control may ultimately lead to better treatments for human cancer.
01 Jan 1989-Annual Review of Immunology
TL;DR: Two types of cloned helper T cells are described, defined primarily by differences in the pattern of lymphokines ynthesized, and the different functions of the two types of cells and their lymphokine synthesis are discussed.
Abstract: Effector functions in the immune system are carried out by a variety of cell types, and as our understanding of the complexity of the system expands, the number of recognized subdivisions of cell types also continues to increase. B lymphocytes, producing antibody, were initially distinguished from T lymphocytes, which provide help for B cells (1, 2). The T-cell population was further divided when surface markers allowed separation of helper cells from cytotoxic cells (3). Although there were persistent reports of heterogeneity in the helper T-cell compartment (reviewed below), only relatively recently were distinct types of helper cells resolved. In this review we describe the differences between two types of cloned helper T cells, defined primarily by differences in the pattern of lymphokines ynthesized, and we also discuss the different functions of the two types of cells and their lymphokines. Patterns of lymphokine synthesis are convenient and explicit markers to describe T-cell subclass differences, and evidence increases that many of the functions of helper T cells are predicted by the functions of the lymphokines that they synthesize after activation by antigen and presenting cells. The separation of many mouse helper T-cell clones into these two distinct types is now well established, but their origin in normal T-cell populations is still not clear. Further divisions of helper T cells may have to be recognized before a complete picture of helper T-cell function can be obtained.
01 Jul 1997-Nature Medicine
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that the cell capable of initiating human AML in non-obese diabetic mice with severe combined immunodeficiency disease (NOD/SCID mice) — termed the SCID leukemia-initiating cell, or SL-IC — possesses the differentiate and proliferative capacities and the potential for self-renewal expected of a leukemic stem cell.
Abstract: On the subject of acute myeloid leukemia (AML), there is little consensus about the target cell within the hematopoietic stem cell hierarchy that is susceptible to leukemic transformation, or about the mechanism that underlies the phenotypic, genotypic and clinical heterogeneity. Here we demonstrate that the cell capable of initiating human AML in non-obese diabetic mice with severe combined immunodeficiency disease (NOD/SCID mice) - termed the SCID leukemia-initiating cell, or SL-IC - possesses the differentiative and proliferative capacities and the potential for self-renewal expected of a leukemic stem cell. The SL-ICs from all subtypes of AML analyzed, regardless of the heterogeneity in maturation characteristics of the leukemic blasts, were exclusively CD34++ CD38-, similar to the cell-surface phenotype of normal SCID-repopulating cells, suggesting that normal primitive cells, rather than committed progenitor cells, are the target for leukemic transformation. The SL-ICs were able to differentiate in vivo into leukemic blasts, indicating that the leukemic clone is organized as a hierarchy.
TL;DR: It is shown that several human cells express a beta-galactosidase, histochemically detectable at pH 6, upon senescence in culture, which provides in situ evidence that senescent cells may exist and accumulate with age in vivo.
Abstract: Normal somatic cells invariably enter a state of irreversibly arrested growth and altered function after a finite number of divisions. This process, termed replicative senescence, is thought to be a tumor-suppressive mechanism and an underlying cause of aging. There is ample evidence that escape from senescence, or immortality, is important for malignant transformation. By contrast, the role of replicative senescence in organismic aging is controversial. Studies on cells cultured from donors of different ages, genetic backgrounds, or species suggest that senescence occurs in vivo and that organismic lifespan and cell replicative lifespan are under common genetic control. However, senescent cells cannot be distinguished from quiescent or terminally differentiated cells in tissues. Thus, evidence that senescent cells exist and accumulate with age in vivo is lacking. We show that several human cells express a beta-galactosidase, histochemically detectable at pH 6, upon senescence in culture. This marker was expressed by senescent, but not presenescent, fibroblasts and keratinocytes but was absent from quiescent fibroblasts and terminally differentiated keratinocytes. It was also absent from immortal cells but was induced by genetic manipulations that reversed immortality. In skin samples from human donors of different age, there was an age-dependent increase in this marker in dermal fibroblasts and epidermal keratinocytes. This marker provides in situ evidence that senescent cells may exist and accumulate with age in vivo.
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