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Cement

About: Cement is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 68440 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 829356 citation(s).


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Book
01 Jan 1970
TL;DR: The chemistry of cement and concrete as discussed by the authors, The chemistry of concrete and its properties, and the relationship between concrete and cement, is a classic example of such an approach. But it is not suitable for outdoor use.
Abstract: The chemistry of cement and concrete , The chemistry of cement and concrete , مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و اطلاع رسانی کشاورزی

2,398 citations

Book
01 Jan 1998
TL;DR: The history of calcareous cements and Portland cements can be found in this paper, where the structure and cementing qualities of cement compounds the constitution of Portland cement, the burning of Portland Cement, the hydration of PortlandCement, resistance of concrete to natural destructive agencies physical and mechanical properties of Portland cement pozzolanas and pozzolanic cements cements made from blast furnace slag high alumina cement some special cements, and cement properties cement admixtures concrete aggregates.
Abstract: The history of calcareous cements Portland cements - classification, raw materials and processes of manufacture cement components and their phase relations the structure and cementing qualities of cement compounds the constitution of Portland cement the burning of Portland cement the hydration of Portland cement the setting and hardening of Portland cement resistance of concrete to natural destructive agencies physical and mechanical properties of Portland cement pozzolanas and pozzolanic cements cements made from blast furnace slag high alumina cement some special cements and cement properties cement admixtures concrete aggregates.

1,596 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the mechanism of activation of fly ash with highly alkaline solutions is described, and the product of the reaction is an amorphous aluminosilicate gel having a structure similar to that of zeolitic precursors.
Abstract: The alkali activation of waste materials (especially those coming from industrial and mining activities) has become an important area of research in many laboratories because it is possible to use these materials to synthesize inexpensive and ecologically sound cementlike construction materials. In the present paper, the mechanism of activation of a fly ash (no other solid material was used) with highly alkaline solutions is described. These solutions, made with NaOH, KOH, water glass, etc., have the common characteristic of having a very high OH 2 concentration. The product of the reaction is an amorphous aluminosilicate gel having a structure similar to that of zeolitic precursors. Temperature and time of curing of specimens together with the solution/fly ash ratio are some of the variables that were studied. These variables have been shown to notably influence the development of the mechanical strength of the final product. Mechanical strengths with values in the 60 MPa range were obtained after curing the fly ash at 85 8 C for only 5 h. © 1999 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

1,493 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Ellis Gartner1
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss the practicality of replacing portland cements with alternative hydraulic cements that could result in lower total CO 2 emissions per unit volume of concrete of equivalent performance.
Abstract: This article discusses the practicality of replacing portland cements with alternative hydraulic cements that could result in lower total CO 2 emissions per unit volume of concrete of equivalent performance. Currently, the cement industry is responding rapidly to the perceived societal need for reduced CO 2 emissions by increasing the production of blended portland cements using supplementary cementitious materials that are principally derived from industrial by-products, such as blast-furnace slags and coal combustion fly ashes. However, the supplies of such by-products of suitable quality are limited. An alternative solution is to use natural pozzolans, although they must still be activated either by portland cement or lime or by alkali silicates or hydroxides, the production of all of which still involves significant CO 2 emissions. Moreover, concretes based on activated pozzolans often require curing at elevated temperatures, which significantly limits their field of application. The most promising alternative cementing systems for general concrete applications at ambient temperatures currently appear to be those based at least in part on calcium sulfates, the availability of which is increasing due to the widespread implementation of sulfur dioxide emission controls. These include calcium sulfoaluminate–belite–ferrite cements of the type developed in China under the generic name “Third Cement Series” (TCS) and other similar systems that make good use of the potential synergies among calcium sulfate, calcium silicate and calcium aluminate hydrates. However, a great deal more research is required to solve significant unresolved processing and reactivity questions and to establish the durability of concretes made from such cements. If we are to use these potentially more CO 2 -efficient technologies on a large enough scale to have a significant global impact, we will also have to develop the performance data needed to justify changes to construction codes and standards.

1,238 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors reviewed the total CO2 emissions from cement making, including process and energy-related emissions, and discussed CO2 emission mitigation options for the cement industry.
Abstract: ▪ Abstract The cement industry contributes about 5% to global anthropogenic CO2 emissions, making the cement industry an important sector for CO2-emission mitigation strategies. CO2 is emitted from the calcination process of limestone, from combustion of fuels in the kiln, as well as from power generation. In this paper, we review the total CO2 emissions from cement making, including process and energy-related emissions. Currently, most available data only includes the process emissions. We also discuss CO2 emission mitigation options for the cement industry. Estimated total carbon emissions from cement production in 1994 were 307 million metric tons of carbon (MtC), 160 MtC from process carbon emissions, and 147 MtC from energy use. Overall, the top 10 cement-producing countries in 1994 accounted for 63% of global carbon emissions from cement production. The average intensity of carbon dioxide emissions from total global cement production is 222 kg of C/t of cement. Emission mitigation options include en...

971 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2022136
20213,344
20203,923
20194,257
20184,606
20174,141