Central nervous system
About: Central nervous system is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 20636 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 1054541 citation(s). The topic is also known as: CNS.
01 Jan 2007-
TL;DR: The current edition of the WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System will serve as an indispensable textbook for all of those involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with tumors of the CNS, and will make a valuable addition to libraries in pathology, radiology, oncology, and neurosurgery departments.
Abstract: Representing the first volume in the fourth edition series of the World Health Organization (WHO) Classification of Tumours, this book provides a welcome mix of old and new. Similar to prior versions, it opens with a summary of the recently revised WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System (CNS), the remainder of the book being dedicated to a comprehensive yet succinct presentation of the most current knowledge relative to each individual tumor and familial tumor syndrome. The 73 contributing authors have likewise adopted a familiar standardized format with the following subheadings: definition, grading, incidence, age and sex distribution, localization, clinical features, neuroimaging, macroscopy, histopathology, proliferation, genetic susceptibility, genetics, histogenesis, and prognostic and predictive factors. Although a fair number of images have been recycled from previous editions, the majority is new and includes more than 400 full-color photomicrographs and macroscopic images, as well as numerous neuroimages, informative diagrams and charts. A number of tumor entities new to this version of the WHO Classification are explored in detail, including pilomyxoid astrocytoma, atypical choroid plexus papilloma, angiocentric glioma, extraventricular neurocytoma, papillary glioneuronal tumor, rosetteforming glioneuronal tumor of the fourth ventricle, papillary tumor of the pineal region, pituicytoma, and spindle cell oncocytoma of the adenohypophysis. Perhaps the most noticeable improvement comes by way of a voluminous expansion in the genetics sections of the majority of tumor categories. This update parallels the recent explosion of research utilizing high-resolution genome screening and other molecular techniques. The authors have done an outstanding job in distilling the information housed in over 2,500 cited references into a readerfriendly authoritative reference of CNS neoplasia. In summation, the current edition of the WHO Classification of Tumours of the Central Nervous System will serve as an indispensable textbook for all of those involved in the diagnosis and management of patients with tumors of the CNS, and will make a valuable addition to libraries in pathology, radiology, oncology, and neurosurgery departments.
01 Jan 1964-Acta Physiologica Scandinavica
01 Apr 2011-Physiological Reviews
TL;DR: Current studies indicate that even in the normal brain, microglia have highly motile processes by which they scan their territorial domains, and microglial cells are considered the most susceptible sensors of brain pathology.
Abstract: Microglial cells are the resident macrophages in the central nervous system. These cells of mesodermal/mesenchymal origin migrate into all regions of the central nervous system, disseminate through the brain parenchyma, and acquire a specific ramified morphological phenotype termed "resting microglia." Recent studies indicate that even in the normal brain, microglia have highly motile processes by which they scan their territorial domains. By a large number of signaling pathways they can communicate with macroglial cells and neurons and with cells of the immune system. Likewise, microglial cells express receptors classically described for brain-specific communication such as neurotransmitter receptors and those first discovered as immune cell-specific such as for cytokines. Microglial cells are considered the most susceptible sensors of brain pathology. Upon any detection of signs for brain lesions or nervous system dysfunction, microglial cells undergo a complex, multistage activation process that converts them into the "activated microglial cell." This cell form has the capacity to release a large number of substances that can act detrimental or beneficial for the surrounding cells. Activated microglial cells can migrate to the site of injury, proliferate, and phagocytose cells and cellular compartments.
01 Sep 1992-Development
TL;DR: The expression of NeuN is observed in most neuronal cell types throughout the nervous system of adult mice, but some major cell types appear devoid of immunoreactivity including cerebellar Purkinje cells, olfactory bulb mitral cells, and retinal photoreceptor cells.
Abstract: A battery of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against brain cell nuclei has been generated by repeated immunizations. One of these, mAb A60, recognizes a vertebrate nervous system- and neuron-specific nuclear protein that we have named NeuN (Neuronal Nuclei). The expression of NeuN is observed in most neuronal cell types throughout the nervous system of adult mice. However, some major cell types appear devoid of immunoreactivity including cerebellar Purkinje cells, olfactory bulb mitral cells, and retinal photoreceptor cells. NeuN can also be detected in neurons in primary cerebellar cultures and in retinoic acid-stimulated P19 embryonal carcinoma cells. Immunohistochemically detectable NeuN protein first appears at developmental timepoints which correspond with the withdrawal of the neuron from the cell cycle and/or with the initiation of terminal differentiation of the neuron. NeuN is a soluble nuclear protein, appears as 3 bands (46-48 × 10(3) M(r)) on immunoblots, and binds to DNA in vitro. The mAb crossreacts immunohistochemically with nervous tissue from rats, chicks, humans, and salamanders. This mAb and the protein recognized by it serve as an excellent marker for neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems in both the embryo and adult, and the protein may be important in the determination of neuronal phenotype.
01 Dec 1997-The Journal of Comparative Neurology
TL;DR: Comparing the distribution of the classical and novel forms of ER mRNA‐expressing neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) of the rat with in situ hybridization histochemistry provides evidence that the region‐specific expression of ER‐α, ER‐β, or both may be important in determining the physiological responses of neuronal populations to estrogen action.
Abstract: Estrogen plays a profound role in regulating the structure and function of many neuronal systems in the adult rat brain. The actions of estrogen were thought to be mediated by a single nuclear estrogen receptor (ER) until the recent cloning of a novel ER (ER-beta). To ascertain which ER is involved in the regulation of different brain regions, the present study compared the distribution of the classical (ER-alpha) and novel (ER-beta) forms of ER mRNA-expressing neurons in the central nervous system (CNS) of the rat with in situ hybridization histochemistry. Female rat brain, spinal cord, and eyes were frozen, and cryostat sections were collected on slides, hybridized with [35S]-labeled antisense riboprobes complimentary to ER-alpha or ER-beta mRNA, stringently washed, and opposed to emulsion. The results of these studies revealed the presence of ER-alpha and ER-beta mRNA throughout the rostral-caudal extent of the brain and spinal cord. Neurons of the olfactory bulb, supraoptic, paraventricular, suprachiasmatic, and tuberal hypothalamic nuclei, zona incerta, ventral tegmental area, cerebellum (Purkinje cells), laminae III-V, VIII, and IX of the spinal cord, and pineal gland contained exclusively ER-beta mRNA. In contrast, only ER-alpha hybridization signal was seen in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus and subfornical organ. Perikarya in other brain regions, including the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, medial and cortical amygdaloid nuclei, preoptic area, lateral habenula, periaqueductal gray, parabrachial nucleus, locus ceruleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, spinal trigeminal nucleus and superficial laminae of the spinal cord, contained both forms of ER mRNA. Although the cerebral cortex and hippocampus contained both ER mRNAs, the hybridization signal for ER-alpha mRNA was very weak compared with ER-beta mRNA. The results of these in situ hybridization studies provide detailed information about the distribution of ER-alpha and ER-beta mRNAs in the rat CNS. In addition, this comparative study provides evidence that the region-specific expression of ER-alpha, ER-beta, or both may be important in determining the physiological responses of neuronal populations to estrogen action.