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Ceramic

About: Ceramic is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 155291 publications have been published within this topic receiving 1608813 citations. The topic is also known as: ceramics & pottery.


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01 Dec 1960
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present a model for the development of the MICROSTRUCTURE in CERAMICS based on phase transformation, glass formation and glass-Ceramics.
Abstract: INTRODUCTION. Ceramic Processes and Products. CHARACTERISTICS OF CERAMIC SOLIDS. Structure of Crystals. Structure of Glasses. Structural Imperfections. Surfaces, Interfaces, and Grain Boundaries. Atom Mobility. DEVELOPMENT OF MICROSTRUCTURE IN CERAMICS. Ceramic Phase Equilibrium Diagrams. Phase Transformation, Glass Formation and Glass--Ceramics. Reactions with and between Solids. Grain Growth. Sintering and Vitrification. Microstructure of Ceramics. PROPERTIES OF CERAMICS. Thermal Properties. Optical Properties. Plastic Deformation, Viscous Flow and Creep. Elasticity, Anelasticity and Strength. Thermal and Compositional Stresses. Electrical Conductivity. Dielectric Properties. Magnetic Properties.

6,650 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
04 Nov 2004-Nature
TL;DR: A lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with an electric-field-induced strain comparable to typical actuator-grade PZT is reported, achieved through the combination of the discovery of a morphotropic phase boundary in an alkaline niobate-based perovskite solid solution, and the development of a processing route leading to highly textured polycrystals.
Abstract: Lead has recently been expelled from many commercial applications and materials (for example, from solder, glass and pottery glaze) owing to concerns regarding its toxicity. Lead zirconium titanate (PZT) ceramics are high-performance piezoelectric materials, which are widely used in sensors, actuators and other electronic devices; they contain more than 60 weight per cent lead. Although there has been a concerted effort to develop lead-free piezoelectric ceramics, no effective alternative to PZT has yet been found. Here we report a lead-free piezoelectric ceramic with an electric-field-induced strain comparable to typical actuator-grade PZT. We achieved this through the combination of the discovery of a morphotropic phase boundary in an alkaline niobate-based perovskite solid solution, and the development of a processing route leading to highly textured polycrystals. The ceramic exhibits a piezoelectric constant d33 (the induced charge per unit force applied in the same direction) of above 300 picocoulombs per newton (pC N(-1)), and texturing the material leads to a peak d33 of 416 pC N(-1). The textured material also exhibits temperature-independent field-induced strain characteristics.

4,689 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Nguyen Q. Minh1
TL;DR: Ceramic fuel cells, commonly referred to as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are presently under development for a variety of power generation applications as mentioned in this paper, and the critical issues posed by the development of this type of fuel cell are discussed.
Abstract: A ceramic fuel cell in an all solid-state energy conversion device that produces electricity by electrochemically combining fuel and oxidant gases across an ionic conducting oxide. Current ceramic fuel cells use an oxygen-ion conductor or a proton conductor as the electrolyte and operate at high temperatures (>600°C). Ceramic fuel cells, commonly referred to as solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), are presently under development for a variety of power generation applications. This paper reviews the science and technology of ceramic fuel cells and discusses the critical issues posed by the development of this type of fuel cell. The emphasis is given to the discussion of component materials (especially, ZrO2 electrolyte, nickel/ZrO2 cermet anode, LaMnO3 cathode, and LaCrO3 interconnect), gas reactions at the electrodes, stack designs, and processing techniques used in the fabrication of required ceramic structures.

3,654 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Ferroelectric ceramics have been the heart and soul of several multibillion dollar industries, ranging from high-dielectric-constant capacitors to later developments in piezoelectric transducers, positive temperature coefficient devices, and electrooptic light valves as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: Ferroelectric ceramics were born in the early 1940s with the discovery of the phenomenon of ferroelectricity as the source of the unusually high dielectric constant in ceramic barium titanate capacitors. Since that time, they have been the heart and soul of several multibillion dollar industries, ranging from high-dielectric-constant capacitors to later developments in piezoelectric transducers, positive temperature coefficient devices, and electrooptic light valves. Materials based on two compositional systems, barium titanate and lead zirconate titanate, have dominated the field throughout their history. The more recent developments in the field of ferroelectric ceramics, such as medical ultrasonic composites, high-displacement piezoelectric actuators (Moonies, RAINBOWS), photostrictors, and thin and thick films for piezoelectric and integrated-circuit applications have served to keep the industry young amidst its growing maturity. Various ceramic formulations, their form (bulk, films), fabrication, function (properties), and future are described in relation to their ferroelectric nature and specific areas of application.

3,442 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
20235,531
202210,911
20214,089
20205,696
20197,671
20187,788