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Cerebral cortex

About: Cerebral cortex is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 21128 publications have been published within this topic receiving 1276870 citations.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The basal ganglia serve primarily to integrate diverse inputs from the entire cerebral cortex and to "funnel" these influences, via the ventrolateral thalamus, to the motor cortex.
Abstract: Information about the basal ganglia has accumulated at a prodigious pace over the past decade, necessitating major revisions in our concepts of the structural and functional organization of these nuclei. From earlier data it had appeared that the basal ganglia served primarily to integrate diverse inputs from the entire cerebral cortex and to "funnel" these influences, via the ventrolateral thalamus, to the motor cortex (Allen & Tsukahara 1974, Evarts & Thach 1969, Kemp & Powell 1971). In particular, the basal

8,111 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The spatial and topological centrality of the core within cortex suggests an important role in functional integration and a substantial correspondence between structural connectivity and resting-state functional connectivity measured in the same participants.
Abstract: Structurally segregated and functionally specialized regions of the human cerebral cortex are interconnected by a dense network of cortico-cortical axonal pathways. By using diffusion spectrum imaging, we noninvasively mapped these pathways within and across cortical hemispheres in individual human participants. An analysis of the resulting large-scale structural brain networks reveals a structural core within posterior medial and parietal cerebral cortex, as well as several distinct temporal and frontal modules. Brain regions within the structural core share high degree, strength, and betweenness centrality, and they constitute connector hubs that link all major structural modules. The structural core contains brain regions that form the posterior components of the human default network. Looking both within and outside of core regions, we observed a substantial correspondence between structural connectivity and resting-state functional connectivity measured in the same participants. The spatial and topological centrality of the core within cortex suggests an important role in functional integration.

4,035 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
05 Mar 1982-Science
TL;DR: Demonstration of selective degeneration of neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert represents the first documentation of a loss of a transmitter-specific neuronal population in a major disorder of higher cortical function and points to a critical subcortical lesion in Alzheimer's patients.
Abstract: Recent evidence indicates that the nucleus basalis of Meynert, a distinct population of basal forebrain neurons, is a major source of cholinergic innervation of the cerebral cortex. Postmortem studies have previously demonstrated profound reduction in the presynaptic markers for cholinergic neurons in the cortex of patients with Alzheimer's disease and senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type. The results of this study show that neurons of the nucleus basalis of Meynert undergo a profound (greater than 75 percent) and selective degeneration in these patients and provide a pathological substrate of the cholinergic deficiency in their brains. Demonstration of selective degeneration of such neurons represents the first documentation of a loss of a transmitter-specific neuronal population in a major disorder of higher cortical function and, as such, points to a critical subcortical lesion in Alzheimer's patients.

3,544 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The following discussion presents some anatomic, clinical and experimental data dealing with the hypothalamus, the gyrus cinguli, the hippocampus and their interconnections, which are proposed as representing theoretically the anatomic basis of the emotions.
Abstract: The work of Cannon,1Bard,2Penfield,3Ranson4and others has greatly advanced knowledge of the functions of the hypothalamus. In the light of these researches the connections of the hypothalamus to the medial wall of the cerebral cortex gain a new significance. The following discussion presents some anatomic, clinical and experimental data dealing with the hypothalamus, the gyrus cinguli, the hippocampus and their interconnections. Taken as a whole, this ensemble of structures is proposed as representing theoretically the anatomic basis of the emotions. It is generally recognized that in the brain of lower vertebrates the medial wall of the cerebral hemisphere is connected anatomically and integrated physiologically with the hypothalamus and that the lateral wall is similarly related to the dorsal thalamus (Herrick5). These fundamental relations are not only retained but greatly elaborated in the mammalian brain by the further development of the hippocampal formation

3,222 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
2023124
2022253
2021307
2020359
2019328
2018329