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Chain-growth polymerization

About: Chain-growth polymerization is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 9051 publications have been published within this topic receiving 170997 citations. The topic is also known as: chain polymerization.

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01 Jan 1981
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an overview of the properties of polymers and their applications in the literature, including the following: 1.1 Types of Polymers and Polymerization. 2.3 Linear, Branched, and Crosslinked Polymers.
Abstract: Preface. 1. Introduction. 1.1 Types of Polymers and Polymerizations. 1.2 Nomenclature of Polymers. 1.3 Linear, Branched, and Crosslinked Polymers. 1.4 Molecular Weight. 1.5 Physical State. 1.6 Applications of Polymers. 2. Step Polymerization. 2.1 Reactivity of Functional Groups. 2.2 Kinetics of Step Polymerization. 2.3 Accessibility of Functional Groups. 2.4 Equilibrium Considerations. 2.5 Cyclization versus Linear Polymerization. 2.6 Molecular Weight Control in Linear Polymerization. 2.7 Molecular Weight Distribution in Linear Polymerization. 2.8 Process Condition. 2.9 Multichain Polymerization. 2.10 Crosslinking. 2.11 Molecular Weight Distributions in Nonlinear Polymerizations. 2.12 Crosslinking Technology. 2.13 Step Copolymerization. 2.14 High-Performance Polymers. 2.15 Inorganic and Organometallic Polymers. 2.16 Dendric (Highly Branched) Polymers. 3. Radical Chain Polymerization. 3.1 Nature and Radical Chain Polymerization. 3.2 Structural Arrangement of Monomer Units. 3.3 Rate of Radical Chain Polymerization. 3.4 Initiation. 3.5 Molecular Weight. 3.6 Chain Transfer. 3.7 Inhibition and Retardation. 3.8 Determination of Absolute Rate Constants. 3.9 Energetic Characteristics. 3.10 Autoacceleration. 3.11 Molecular Weight Distribution. 3.12 Effect of Pressure. 3.13 Process Conditions. 3.14 Specific Commercial Polymers. 3.15 Living Radical Polymerization. 3.16 Other Polymerizations. 4. Emulsion Polymerization. 4.1 Description of Process. 4.2 Quantitative Aspects. 4.3 Other Characteristics of Emulsion Polymerization. 5. Ionic Chain Polymerization. 5.1 Comparison of Radical and Ionic Polymerization. 5.2 Cationic Polymerization of the Carbon-Carbon Double Bond. 5.3 Anionic Polymerization of the Carbon-Carbon Double. 5.4 Block and Other Polymer Architecture. 5.5 Distinguishing Between Radical, Cationic, and Anionic Polymerizations. 5.6 Carbonyl Polymerization. 5.7 Miscellaneous Polymerizations. 6. Chain Copolymerization. 6.1 General Considerations. 6.2 Copolymer Composition. 6.3 Radical Copolymerization. 6.4 Ionic Copolymerization. 6.5 Deviations from Terminal Copolymerization Model. 6.6 Copolymerizations Involving Dienes. 6.7 Other Copolymerizations. 6.8 Applications of Copolymerizations. 7. Ring-Opening Polymerization. 7.1 General Characteristics. 7.2 Cyclic Ethers. 7.3 Lactams. 7.4 N-Carboxy-alphaAmino Acid Anhydrides. 7.5 Lactones. 7.6 Nitrogen Heterocyclics. 7.7 Sulfur Heterocyclics. 7.8 Cycloalkenes. 7.9 Miscellaneous Oxygen Heterocyclics. 7.10 Other Ring-Opening Polymerizations. 7.11 Inorganic and Partially Inorganic Polymers. 7.12 Copolymerization. 8. Stereochemistry of Polymerizaton. 8.1 Types of Stereoisomerism in Polymers. 8.2 Properties of Stereoregular Polymers. 8.3 Forces of Stereoregulation in Alkene Polymerization. 8.4 Traditional Ziegler-Natta Polymerization of Nonpolar Alkene Monomers. 8.5 Metallocene Polymerization of Nonpolar Alkene Monomers. 8.6 Other Hydrocarbon Monomers. 8.7 Copolymerization. 8.8 Postmetallocene: Chelate Initiators. 8.9 Living Polymerization. 8.10 Polymerization of 1,3-Dienes. 8.11 Commercial Applications. 8.12 Polymerization of Polar Vinyl Monomers. 8.13 Alehydes. 8.14 Optical Activity in Polymers. 8.15 Ring-Opening Polymerization. 8.16 Statistical Models of Propagation. 9. Reactions of Polymers. 9.1 Principles of Polymers Reactivity. 9.2 Crosslinking. 9.3 Reactions of Cellulose. 9.4 Reactions of Poly(vinyl) acetate). 9.5 Halogenation. 9.6 Aromatic Substitution. 9.7 Cyclization. 9.8 Other Reactions. 9.9 Graft Copolymers. 9.10 Block Copolymers. 9.11 Polymers as Carriers or Supports. 9.12 Polymer Reagents. 9.13 Polymer Catalysts. 9.14 Polymer Substrates. Index.

4,933 citations



01 Jan 1971
TL;DR: The Science of Large Molecules POLYMERIZATION Step-Reaction (Condensation) Polymerization Radical Chain (Addition) PolyMERization Ionic and Coordination Chain (addition) Copolymerization Polymerisation Conditions and Polymer Reactions CHARACTERIZATION Polymer Solutions Measurement of Molecular Weight and Size Analysis and Testing of Polymers STRUCTURE and PROPERTIES Morphology and Order in Crystalline Polymers Rheology and the Mechanical Properties of Polymer Structure and Physical Properties as mentioned in this paper.
Abstract: The Science of Large Molecules POLYMERIZATION Step-Reaction (Condensation) Polymerization Radical Chain (Addition) Polymerization Ionic and Coordination Chain (Addition) Polymerization Copolymerization Polymerization Conditions and Polymer Reactions CHARACTERIZATION Polymer Solutions Measurement of Molecular Weight and Size Analysis and Testing of Polymers STRUCTURE AND PROPERTIES Morphology and Order in Crystalline Polymers Rheology and the Mechanical Properties of Polymers Polymer Structure and Physical Properties PROPERTIES OF COMMERICAL POLYMERS Hydrocarbon Plastics and Elastomers Other Carbon-Chain Polymers Heterochain Thermoplastics Thermosetting Resins POLYMER PROCESSING Plastics Technology Fiber Technology Elastomer Technology Appendixes Author and Subject Indexes.

1,703 citations

Journal ArticleDOI


TL;DR: This data indicates that self-Assembled Monolayers and Walled Carbon Nanotubes with high adhesion to Nitroxide-Mediated Polymerization have potential in the well-Defined Polymer Age.
Abstract: Keywords: Fragmentation Chain-Transfer ; Self-Assembled Monolayers ; Walled Carbon Nanotubes ; Well-Defined Polymer ; Nitroxide-Mediated Polymerization ; Block-Copolymer Brushes ; Poly(Methyl Methacrylate) Brushes ; Transfer Raft Polymerization ; Quartz-Crystal Microbalance ; Poly(Acrylic Acid) Brushes Reference EPFL-REVIEW-148464doi:10.1021/cr900045aView record in Web of Science Record created on 2010-04-23, modified on 2017-05-10

1,454 citations



01 Jan 1981
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss the history of polymers and their application in the field of chemical engineering, including the origins of polymer science and the Polymer Industry, as well as a discussion of the role of elastic deformation in polymers.
Abstract: CONCEPTS, NOMENCLATURE AND SYNTHESIS OF POLYMERS Concepts and Nomenclature The Origins of Polymer Science and the Polymer Industry Basic Definitions and Nomenclature Molar Mass and Degree of Polymerization Principles of Polymerization Introduction Classification of Polymerization Reactions Monomer Functionality and Polymer Skeletal Structure Functional Group Reactivity and Molecular Size: The Principle of Equal Reactivity Step Polymerization Introduction Linear Step Polymerization Non-Linear Step Polymerization Radical Polymerization Introduction to Radical Polymerization The Chemistry of Conventional Free-Radical Polymerization Kinetics of Conventional Free-Radical Polymerization Free-Radical Polymerization Processes Reversible-Deactivation ('Living') Radical Polymerizations Non-Linear Radical Polymerizations Ionic Polymerization Introduction to Ionic Polymerization Cationic Polymerization Anionic Polymerization Group-Transfer Polymerization Stereochemistry and Coordination Polymerization Introduction to Stereochemistry of Polymerization Tacticity of Polymers Geometric Isomerism in Polymers Prepared from Conjugated Dienes Ziegler-Natta Coordination Polymerization Metallocene Coordination Polymerization Ring-Opening Polymerization Introduction to Ring-Opening Polymerization Cationic Ring-Opening Polymerization Anionic Ring-Opening Polymerization Free-Radical Ring-Opening Polymerization Ring-Opening Metathesis Polymerization Specialized Methods of Polymer Synthesis Introduction Solid-State Topochemical Polymerization Polymerization by Oxidative Coupling Precursor Routes to Intractable Polymers Supramolecular Polymerization (Polyassociation) Copolymerization Introduction Step Copolymerization Chain Copolymerization Block Copolymer Synthesis Graft Copolymer Synthesis CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYMERS Theoretical Description of Polymers in Solution Introduction Thermodynamics of Polymer Solutions Chain Dimensions Frictional Properties of Polymer Molecules in Dilute Solution Number-Average Molar Mass Introduction to Measurements of Number-Average Molar Mass Membrane Osmometry Vapour Pressure Osmometry Ebulliometry and Cryoscopy End-Group Analysis Effects of Low Molar Mass Impurities upon Mn Scattering Methods Introduction Static Light Scattering Dynamic Light Scattering Small-Angle X-Ray and Neutron Scattering Frictional Properties of Polymers in Solution Introduction Dilute Solution Viscometry Ultracentrifugation Molar Mass Distribution Introduction Fractionation Gel Permeation Chromatography Field-Flow Fractionation Mass Spectroscopy Chemical Composition and Molecular Microstructure Introduction Principles of Spectroscopy Ultraviolet and Visible Light Absorption Spectroscopy Infrared Spectroscopy Raman Spectroscopy Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy Mass Spectroscopy PHASE STRUCTURE AND MORPHOLOGY OF BULK POLYMERS The Amorphous State Introduction The Glass Transition Factors Controlling the Tg Macromolecular Dynamics The Crystalline State Introduction Determination of Crystal Structure Polymer Single Crystals Semi-Crystalline Polymers Liquid Crystalline Polymers Defects in Crystalline Polymers Crystallization Melting Multicomponent Polymer Systems Introduction Polymer Blends Block Copolymers PROPERTIES OF BULK POLYMERS Elastic Deformation Introduction Elastic Deformation Elastic Deformation of Polymers Viscoelasticity Introduction Viscoelastic Mechanical Models Boltzmann Superposition Principle Dynamic Mechanical Testing Frequency Dependence of Viscoelastic Behaviour Transitions and Polymer Structure Time-Temperature Superposition Effect of Entanglements Non-Linear Viscoelasticity Elastomers Introduction Thermodynamics of Elastomer Deformation Statistical Theory of Elastomer Deformation Stress-Strain Behaviour of Elastomers Factors Affecting Mechanical Behaviour Yield and Crazing Introduction Phenomenology of Yield Yield Criteria Deformation Mechanisms Crazing Fracture and Toughening Introduction Fundamentals of Fracture Mechanics of Fracture Fracture Phenomena Toughened Polymers Polymer Composites Introduction to Composite Materials Matrix Materials Types of Reinforcement Composite Composition Particulate Reinforcement Fibre Reinforcement Nanocomposites Electrical Properties Introduction to Electrical Properties Dielectric Properties Conduction in Polymers Polymer Electronics Answers to Problems Index Problems and Further Reading appear at the end of each chapter.

1,337 citations

Reference BookDOI


15 Mar 1996
TL;DR: Anionic and living polymerization: Living polymerization - definitions, consequences and criteria general aspects of anionic polymerization are discussed in this paper, where anionic synthesis of polymers with well-defined structures is discussed.
Abstract: Part 1 Structure and bonding in carbanionic compounds: structure of carbanions and organometallic compounds stabilities of carbanionic species ion pairs, free ions and stereochemistry in carbanionic chemistry. Part 2 Introduction to anionic and living polymerization: living polymerization - definitions, consequences and criteria general aspects of anionic polymerization. Part 3 Kinetics and mechanism in anionic polymerization: initiation reactions in anionic polymerization - kinetics of addition of organolithium compounds to vinyl monomer propagation reactions - kinetics and mechanism for styrenes and dienes in hydrocarbon solvents with lithium as counterion termination and chain transfer reactions stereochemistry of polymerization copolymerization. Part 4 Anionic synthesis of polymers with well-defined structures: functionalized polymers and macromonomers block copolymers star polymers graft copolymers. Part 5 Commercial applications of anionically prepared polymers: commercial applications of anionically polymerized products - an overview polydiene rubbers styrene-diene rubbers styrenic thermoplastic elastomers applications of styrenic thermoplastic rubbers in plastics modifications, adhesives and footwear clear impact-resistant polystyrene nonfunctional telechelic prepolymers. Part 6 Polar monomers: anionic polymerization of methyl methacrylate and related polar monomers block polymers prepared via anionic ring-opening polymerization.

1,000 citations

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