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Charge carrier

About: Charge carrier is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 19756 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 496084 citation(s).

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1103/PHYSREVLETT.98.206805
Abstract: We investigate electronic transport in lithographically patterned graphene ribbon structures where the lateral confinement of charge carriers creates an energy gap near the charge neutrality point. Individual graphene layers are contacted with metal electrodes and patterned into ribbons of varying widths and different crystallographic orientations. The temperature dependent conductance measurements show larger energy gaps opening for narrower ribbons. The sizes of these energy gaps are investigated by measuring the conductance in the nonlinear response regime at low temperatures. We find that the energy gap scales inversely with the ribbon width, thus demonstrating the ability to engineer the band gap of graphene nanostructures by lithographic processes.

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Topics: Graphene nanoribbons (65%), Band gap (58%), Graphene (57%) ...read more

4,705 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/44359
14 Oct 1999-Nature
Abstract: Self-organization in many solution-processed, semiconducting conjugated polymers results in complex microstructures, in which ordered microcrystalline domains are embedded in an amorphous matrix1. This has important consequences for electrical properties of these materials: charge transport is usually limited by the most difficult hopping processes and is therefore dominated by the disordered matrix, resulting in low charge-carrier mobilities2 (⩽10-5 cm2 V-1 s-1). Here we use thin-film, field-effect transistor structures to probe the transport properties of the ordered microcrystalline domains in the conjugated polymer poly(3-hexylthiophene), P3HT. Self-organization in P3HT results in a lamella structure with two-dimensional conjugated sheets formed by interchain stacking. We find that, depending on processing conditions, the lamellae can adopt two different orientations—parallel and normal to the substrate—the mobilities of which differ by more than a factor of 100, and can reach values as high as 0.1 cm2 V-1 s-1 (refs 3, 4). Optical spectroscopy of the field-induced charge, combined with the mobility anisotropy, reveals the two-dimensional interchain character of the polaronic charge carriers, which exhibit lower relaxation energies than the corresponding radical cations on isolated one-dimensional chains. The possibility of achieving high mobilities via two-dimensional transport in self-organized conjugated lamellae is important for applications of polymer transistors in logic circuits5 and active-matrix displays4,6.

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Topics: Charge carrier (52%)

4,150 Citations


Open accessBook
Michael Grätzel1Institutions (1)
03 Aug 2010-
Abstract: The dye-sensitized solar cells (DSC) provides a technically and economically credible alternative concept to present day p–n junction photovoltaic devices. In contrast to the conventional systems where the semiconductor assume both the task of light absorption and charge carrier transport the two functions are separated here. Light is absorbed by a sensitizer, which is anchored to the surface of a wide band semiconductor. Charge separation takes place at the interface via photo-induced electron injection from the dye into the conduction band of the solid. Carriers are transported in the conduction band of the semiconductor to the charge collector. The use of sensitizers having a broad absorption band in conjunction with oxide films of nanocrstalline morphology permits to harvest a large fraction of sunlight. Nearly quantitative conversion of incident photon into electric current is achieved over a large spectral range extending from the UV to the near IR region. Overall solar (standard AM 1.5) to current conversion efficiencies (IPCE) over 10% have been reached. There are good prospects to produce these cells at lower cost than conventional devices. Here we present the current state of the field, discuss new concepts of the dye-sensitized nanocrystalline solar cell (DSC) including heterojunction variants and analyze the perspectives for the future development of the technology.

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Topics: Organic solar cell (64%), Solar cell (59%), Charge carrier (58%) ...read more

4,101 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/J100102A038
Abstract: A systematic study of metal ion doping in quantum (Q)-sized (2-4 nm) TiO_2 colloids is performed by measuring their photoreactivities and the transient charge carrier recombination dynamics. The presence of metal ion dopants in the TiO_2 crystalline matrix significantly influences photoreactivity, charge carrier recombination rates, and interfacial electron-transfer rates. The photoreactivities of 21 metal ion-doped colloids are quantified in terms of both the conduction band electron reduction of an electron acceptor (CCl_4 dechlorination) and the valence band hole oxidation of an electron donor (CHCl_3 degradation). Doping with Fe^(3+), Mo^(5+), Ru^(3+), Os^(3+), Re^(5+), V^(4+), and Rh^(3+) at 0.1-0.5 at.% significantly increases the photoreactivity for both oxidation and reduction while Co^(3+) and Al^(3+) doping decreases the photoreactivity. The transient absorption signals upon laser flash photolysis (λ_(ex) = 355 nm) at λ = 600 nm are extended up to 50 ms for Fe^(3+)-, V^(4+)-, Mo^(5+)-, and Ru^(3+)-doped TiO_2 while the undoped Q-sized TiO_2 shows a complete "blue electron" signal decay within 200 μs. Co^(3+)- and Al^(3+)-doped TiO_2 are characterized by rapid signal decays with a complete loss of absorption signals within 5 μs. The quantum yields obtained during CW photolyses are quantitatively correlated with the measured transient absorption signals of the charge carriers. Photoreactivities are shown to increase with the relative concentration of trapped charge carriers. The photoreactivity of doped TiO_2 appears to be a complex function of the dopant concentration, the energy level of dopants within the TiO_2 lattice, their d electronic configuration, the distribution of dopants, the electron donor concentration, and the light intensity.

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Topics: Charge carrier (51%), Doping (51%), Light intensity (51%) ...read more

3,364 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.AAA2725
Dong Shi1, Valerio Adinolfi2, Riccardo Comin2, Mingjian Yuan2  +12 moreInstitutions (4)
30 Jan 2015-Science
Abstract: The fundamental properties and ultimate performance limits of organolead trihalide MAPbX3 (MA = CH3NH3(+); X = Br(-) or I(-)) perovskites remain obscured by extensive disorder in polycrystalline MAPbX3 films. We report an antisolvent vapor-assisted crystallization approach that enables us to create sizable crack-free MAPbX3 single crystals with volumes exceeding 100 cubic millimeters. These large single crystals enabled a detailed characterization of their optical and charge transport characteristics. We observed exceptionally low trap-state densities on the order of 10(9) to 10(10) per cubic centimeter in MAPbX3 single crystals (comparable to the best photovoltaic-quality silicon) and charge carrier diffusion lengths exceeding 10 micrometers. These results were validated with density functional theory calculations.

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Topics: Trihalide (58%), Perovskite (structure) (51%), Charge carrier (51%)

3,157 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202233
2021932
2020970
2019958
2018959
2017933

Top Attributes

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Topic's top 5 most impactful authors

Heinz Bässler

47 papers, 2.1K citations

James R. Durrant

35 papers, 2.8K citations

Andrey Tyutnev

25 papers, 158 citations

Tom J. Savenije

24 papers, 1.3K citations

Karl Leo

24 papers, 1.1K citations

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