Topic

# Charged black hole

About: Charged black hole is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 5691 publications have been published within this topic receiving 205175 citations. The topic is also known as: Reissner–Nordström black hole.

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TL;DR: In this article, it is shown that quantum mechanical effects cause black holes to create and emit particles as if they were hot bodies with temperature, which leads to a slow decrease in the mass of the black hole and to its eventual disappearance.

Abstract: In the classical theory black holes can only absorb and not emit particles. However it is shown that quantum mechanical effects cause black holes to create and emit particles as if they were hot bodies with temperature\(\frac{{h\kappa }}{{2\pi k}} \approx 10^{ - 6} \left( {\frac{{M_ \odot }}{M}} \right){}^ \circ K\) where κ is the surface gravity of the black hole. This thermal emission leads to a slow decrease in the mass of the black hole and to its eventual disappearance: any primordial black hole of mass less than about 1015 g would have evaporated by now. Although these quantum effects violate the classical law that the area of the event horizon of a black hole cannot decrease, there remains a Generalized Second Law:S+1/4A never decreases whereS is the entropy of matter outside black holes andA is the sum of the surface areas of the event horizons. This shows that gravitational collapse converts the baryons and leptons in the collapsing body into entropy. It is tempting to speculate that this might be the reason why the Universe contains so much entropy per baryon.

10,022 citations

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TL;DR: The standard Einstein-Maxwell equations in 2+1 spacetime dimensions, with a negative cosmological constant, admit a black hole solution that appears as a negative energy state separated by a mass gap from the continuous black hole spectrum.

Abstract: The standard Einstein-Maxwell equations in 2+1 spacetime dimensions, with a negative cosmological constant, admit a black hole solution. The 2+1 black hole---characterized by mass, angular momentum, and charge, defined by flux integrals at infinity---is quite similar to its 3+1 counterpart. Anti--de Sitter space appears as a negative energy state separated by a mass gap from the continuous black hole spectrum. Evaluation of the partition function yields that the entropy is equal to twice the perimeter length of the horizon.

3,640 citations

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TL;DR: This article derived expressions for the mass of a stationary axisymmetric solution of the Einstein equations containing a black hole surrounded by matter and for the difference in mass between two neighboring such solutions.

Abstract: Expressions are derived for the mass of a stationary axisymmetric solution of the Einstein equations containing a black hole surrounded by matter and for the difference in mass between two neighboring such solutions. Two of the quantities which appear in these expressions, namely the area A of the event horizon and the “surface gravity” κ of the black hole, have a close analogy with entropy and temperature respectively. This analogy suggests the formulation of four laws of black hole mechanics which correspond to and in some ways transcend the four laws of thermodynamics.

3,063 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, a new family of solutions were found which describe spinning black holes in higher dimensional space-times, which are similar to the familiar Kerr and Schwarzschild metrics which are recovered for N = 3.

Abstract: Black hole solutions to Einstein's equations are examined in asymptotically flat N + 1 dimensional space-times. First generalizations of Schwarzschild and Reissner-Nordstrom solutions are examined in a discussion of static black holes in N + 1 dimensions. Then a new family of solutions is found which describe spinning black holes in higher dimensional space-times. In many respects these new solutions are similar to the familiar Kerr and Schwarzschild metrics which are recovered for N = 3. One exceptional case though is that for N ≥ 5, black holes with a fixed mass may have arbitrarily large angular momentum.

2,036 citations

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TL;DR: In this paper, the authors derived separable equations describing perturbations of a Kerr black hole, which can be used to study black-hole processes involving scalar, electromagnetic, neutrino or gravitational fields.

Abstract: Decoupled, separable equations describing perturbations of a Kerr black hole are derived. These equations can be used to study black-hole processes involving scalar, electromagnetic, neutrino or gravitational fields. A number of astrophysical applications are made: Misner's idea that gravitational synchrotron radiation might explain Weber's observations is shown to be untenable; rotating black holes are shown to be stable against small perturbations; energy amplification by "superradiant scattering" of waves off a rotating black hole is computed; the "spin down" (loss of angular momentum) of a rotating black hole caused by a stationary non-axisymmetric perturbation is calculated.

1,349 citations