About: Charring is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 1765 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 34948 citation(s).
25 Jan 2010-Environmental Science & Technology
TL;DR: A molecular-level assessment of the physical organization and chemical complexity of biomass-derived chars and, specifically, that of aromatic carbon in char structures suggests the existence of four distinct categories of char consisting of a unique mixture of chemical phases and physical states.
Abstract: Char black carbon (BC), the solid residue of incomplete combustion, is continuously being added to soils and sediments due to natural vegetation fires, anthropogenic pollution, and new strategies for carbon sequestration (“biochar”). Here we present a molecular-level assessment of the physical organization and chemical complexity of biomass-derived chars and, specifically, that of aromatic carbon in char structures. Brunauer−Emmett−Teller (BET)−N2 surface area (SA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), synchrotron-based near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy are used to show how two plant materials (wood and grass) undergo analogous but quantitatively different physical−chemical transitions as charring temperature increases from 100 to 700 °C. These changes suggest the existence of four distinct categories of char consisting of a unique mixture of chemical phases and physical states: (i) in transition chars, the crystalline character of the precursor ma...
01 Jul 1966-Journal of Lipid Research
TL;DR: A rapid method is described for charring 5-300 micrograms of lipids (with concentrated sulfuric acid in a test tube) and estimating them with a reproducibility of +/-1%.
Abstract: A rapid method is described for charring 5-300 micrograms of lipids (with concentrated sulfuric acid in a test tube) and estimating them with a reproducibility of +/-1%.
10 Sep 1998-
Abstract: Systems and methods for controlling the power supplied to an electrosurgical probe. The systems and methods may be used to monitor electrode-tissue contact, adjust power in response to a loss of contact, and apply power in such a manner that charring, coagulum formation and tissue popping are less likely to occur.
15 Mar 2007-Biogeochemistry
Abstract: After vegetation fires considerable amounts of severely or partly charred necromass (referred to here as char) are incorporated into the soil, with long-term consequences for soil C and N dynamics and thus N availability for primary production and C and N transport within the soil column. Considering results reported in the pyrolysis literature in combination with those obtained from controlled charring of plant material and soil organic matter (SOM), it has become clear that common models claiming char as a graphite-like material composed mainly of highly condensed polyaromatic clusters may be oversimplified. Instead, I suggest a concept in which char is a heterogeneous mixture of heat-altered biopolymers with domains of relatively small polyaromatic clusters, but considerable substitution with N, O and S functional groups. Such a concept allows fast oxidation facilitating both microbial attack and dissolution. Although, char is commonly believed to degrade more slowly than litter, over the long term and under oxic conditions, char may degrade to an extent that it becomes indistinguishable from naturally formed SOM. Oxygen depletion or environments with low microbial activity may be necessary for char to survive without major chemical alteration and in considerable amounts for millennia or longer.
20 Jul 2004-Environmental Science & Technology
TL;DR: This work demonstrates that thermal/ optical reflectance (TOR) corrections yield equivalent OC/ EC splits for widely divergent temperature protocols, and results determined by simultaneous thermal/optical transmittance (TOT) corrections are 30% lower than TOR for the same temperature protocol and 70-80% lower for a protocol with higher heating temperatures and shorter residence times.
Abstract: Charring of organic carbon (OC) during thermal/optical analysis is monitored by the change in a laser signal either reflected from or transmitted through a filter punch. Elemental carbon (EC) in suspended particulate matter collected on quartz-fiber filters is defined as the carbon that evolves after the detected optical signal attains the value it had prior to commencement of heating, with the rest of the carbon classified as organic carbon (OC). Heretofore, operational definitions of EC were believed to be caused by different temperature protocols rather than by the method of monitoring charring. This work demonstrates that thermal/ optical reflectance (TOR) corrections yield equivalent OC/ EC splits for widely divergent temperature protocols. EC results determined by simultaneous thermal/optical transmittance (TOT) corrections are 30% lower than TOR for the same temperature protocol and 70-80% lower than TOR for a protocol with higher heating temperatures and shorter residence times. This is true for 58 urban samples from Fresno, CA, as well as for 30 samples from the nonurban IMPROVE network that are individually dominated by wildfire, vehicle exhaust, secondary organic aerosol, and calcium carbonate contributions. Visual examination of filter darkening at different temperature stages shows that substantial charring takes place within the filter, possibly due to adsorbed organic gases or diffusion of vaporized particles. The filter transmittance is more influenced by the within-filter char, whereas the filter reflectance is dominated by charring of the near-surface deposit that appears to evolve first when oxygen is added to helium in the analysis atmosphere for these samples. The amounts of charred OC (POC) and EC are also estimated from incremental absorbance. Small amounts of POC are found to dominate the incremental absorbance. EC estimated from absorbance are found to agree better with EC from the reflectance charring correction than with EC from the transmittance charring correction.