About: Chelation is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 5476 publications have been published within this topic receiving 130320 citations.
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TL;DR: In this article, a large group of flavonoids from all major structural subclasses were tested on their ability to inhibit doxorubicin (enzymatically)-induced microsomal lipid peroxidation (LPO) and to chelate Fe2+.
Abstract: Flavonoids, a group of naturally occurring antioxidants and iron chelators, might be used as cardioprotective agents in doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity, which is believed to be caused by the formation of oxygen free radicals. To investigate the underlying molecular mechanism, we tested a large group of flavonoids from all major structural subclasses on their ability to inhibit doxorubicin (enzymatically)-induced and Fe2+/ascorbate (nonenzymatically)-induced microsomal lipid peroxidation (LPO) and to chelate Fe2+. In addition, we measured half peak oxidation potentials (Ep/2). LPO inhibition data gave a good qualitative correlation with the oxidation potentials. Most flavonoids tested chelated Fe2+, but there were large differences in the chelating capacity. For good scavenging activity, a catechol moiety on ring B is required. The 3-OH moiety can function as a chelation site and can also be oxidized. The 3-OH group in combination with a C2 C3 double bond, increases the scavenging activity. Fe2+ chelation only plays a role in the LPO inhibition by less active scavengers. Chelation can then raise the activity to the level of the most active scavengers, possibly by site-specific scavenging. It can be concluded that Ep/2 values and iron chelating activity can almost completely describe the LPO inhibiting behaviour of the flavonoids.
TL;DR: The metal chelating properties of flavonoids suggest that they may play a role in metal-overload diseases and in all oxidative stress conditions involving a transition metal ion.
Abstract: The metal chelating properties of flavonoids suggest that they may play a role in metal-overload diseases and in all oxidative stress conditions involving a transition metal ion. A detailed study has been made of the ability of flavonoids to chelate iron (including Fe3+) and copper ions and its dependence of structure and pH. The acid medium may be important in some pathological conditions. In addition, the ability of flavonoids to reduce iron and copper ions and their activity-structure relationships were also investigated. To fulfill these objectives, flavones (apigenin, luteolin, kaempferol, quercetin, myricetin and rutin), isoflavones (daidzein and genistein), flavanones (taxifolin, naringenin and naringin) and a flavanol (catechin) were investigated. All flavonoids studied show higher reducing capacity for copper ions than for iron ions. The flavonoids with better Fe3+ reducing activity are those with a 2,3-double bond and possessing both the catechol group in the B-ring and the 3-hydroxyl group. The copper reducing activity seems to depend largely on the number of hydroxyl groups. The chelation studies were carried out by means of ultraviolet spectroscopy and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. Only flavones and the flavanol catechin interact with metal ions. At pH 7.4 and pH 5.5 all flavones studied appear to chelate Cu2+ at the same site, probably between the 5-hydroxyl and the 4-oxo groups. Myricetin and quercetin, however, at pH 7.4, appear to chelate Cu2+ additionally at the ortho-catechol group, the chelating site for catechin with Cu2+ at pH 7.4. Chelation studies of Fe3+ to flavonoids were investigated only at pH 5.5. Only myricetin and quercetin interact strongly with Fe3+, complexation probably occurring again between the 5-hydroxyl and the 4-oxo groups. Their behaviour can be explained by their ability to reduce Fe3+ at pH 5.5, suggesting that flavonoids reduce Fe3+ to Fe2+ before association.
TL;DR: A comprehensive account of recent developments in the research on heavy metal poisoning particularly the role of oxidative stress/free radicals in the toxic manifestation is attempted, an update about the recent strategies for the treatment with chelating agents and a possible beneficial role of antioxidants supplementation to achieve the optimum effects are attempted.
Abstract: Exposure to heavy metals is a common phenomenon due to their environmental pervasiveness. Metal intoxication particularly neurotoxicity, genotoxicity, or carcinogenicity is widely known. This review summarizes our current understanding about the mechanism by which metalloids or heavy metals (particularly arsenic, lead, cadmium and mercury) induce their toxic effects. The unifying factor in determining toxicity and carcinogenicity for all these metals is the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. The toxic manifestations of these metals are caused primarily due to imbalance between pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis which is termed as oxidative stress. Besides these metals have high affinity for thiol groups containing enzymes and proteins, which are responsible for normal cellular defense mechanism. Long term exposure to these metals could lead to apoptosis. Signaling components affected by metals include growth factor receptors, G-proteins, MAP kinases and transcription factors. Chelation therapy with chelating agents like calcium disodium ethylenediamine tetra acetic acid (CaNa(2)EDTA), British Anti Lewisite (BAL), sodium 2,3-dimercaptopropane 1-sulfonate (DMPS), meso 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) etc., is considered to be the best known treatment against metal poisoning. Despite many years of research we are still far away from effective treatment against toxicity caused due to exposure to heavy metals/metalloids. The treatment with these chelating agents is compromised with number of serious side-effects. Studies show that supplementation of antioxidants along-with a chelating agent prove to be a better treatment regimen than monotherapy with chelating agents. This review attempts a comprehensive account of recent developments in the research on heavy metal poisoning particularly the role of oxidative stress/free radicals in the toxic manifestation, an update about the recent strategies for the treatment with chelating agents and a possible beneficial role of antioxidants supplementation to achieve the optimum effects. We have selected only arsenic, lead, mercury and cadmium for this article keeping in view current concerns and literature available.
TL;DR: This review provides an update of the existing chelating agents and the various strategies available for the treatment of heavy metals and metalloid intoxications.
Abstract: Chelation therapy is the preferred medical treatment for reducing the toxic effects of metals. Chelating agents are capable of binding to toxic metal ions to form complex structures which are easily excreted from the body removing them from intracellular or extracellular spaces. 2,3-Dimercaprol has long been the mainstay of chelation therapy for lead or arsenic poisoning, however its serious side effects have led researchers to develop less toxic analogues. Hydrophilic chelators like meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid effectively promote renal metal excretion, but their ability to access intracellular metals is weak. Newer strategies to address these drawbacks like combination therapy (use of structurally different chelating agents) or co-administration of antioxidants have been reported recently. In this review we provide an update of the existing chelating agents and the various strategies available for the treatment of heavy metals and metalloid intoxications.
TL;DR: In this paper, mycelial wastes of Rhizopus arrhizus, used in fermentation industries to produce lipases, were studied for their ability to absorb various heavy metal ions (Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb).
Abstract: Mycelial wastes of Rhizopus arrhizus, used in fermentation industries to produce lipases, were studied for their ability to absorb various heavy metal ions (Ni, Zn, Cd and Pb). Chelation of all these ions occurs by a chemical, equilibrated and saturatable mechanism, following the Langmuir adsorption model. Data transformation allowed us to calculate maximum uptake and dissociation constants of the sorption reaction. We also investigated the influence of pH on metal accumulation. Sorption capacity variations between different biosorbent types (Rhizopus, Mucor, Penicillium, and Aspergillus), could be related to their acidity. pH neutralisation during the sorption reaction considerably enhanced zinc chelation (up to 56 mg/g). Previous NaOH treatment of mycelial wastes also increased their capacity for metal sorption. We report R. arrhizus metal uptake curves versus pH, using a pH-stat system. Optimal adsorption was achieved at neutral pH for nickel and zinc, pH 5.0 for lead, and inhibition of chelation was observed when the pH decreased. These results illustrate the importance of pH during the adsorption process, indicating a competitive mechanism for chelation between heavy metal ions and protons at cell wall adsorption sites.
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