Chemical oxygen demand
About: Chemical oxygen demand is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 16999 publications have been published within this topic receiving 337708 citations. The topic is also known as: COD.
Papers published on a yearly basis
TL;DR: It is demonstrated here that it is also possible to produce electricity in a MFC from domestic wastewater, while at the same time accomplishing biological wastewater treatment (removal of chemical oxygen demand; COD), which may represent a completely new approach to wastewater treatment.
Abstract: Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) have been used to produce electricity from different compounds, including acetate, lactate, and glucose. We demonstrate here that it is also possible to produce electricity in a MFC from domestic wastewater, while atthe same time accomplishing biological wastewater treatment (removal of chemical oxygen demand; COD). Tests were conducted using a single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) containing eight graphite electrodes (anodes) and a single air cathode. The system was operated under continuous flow conditions with primary clarifier effluent obtained from a local wastewater treatment plant. The prototype SCMFC reactor generated electrical power (maximum of 26 mW m(-2)) while removing up to 80% of the COD of the wastewater. Power output was proportional to the hydraulic retention time over a range of 3-33 h and to the influent wastewater strength over a range of 50-220 mg/L of COD. Current generation was controlled primarily by the efficiency of the cathode. Optimal cathode performance was obtained by allowing passive air flow rather than forced air flow (4.5-5.5 L/min). The Coulombic efficiency of the system, based on COD removal and current generation, was < 12% indicating a substantial fraction of the organic matter was lost without current generation. Bioreactors based on power generation in MFCs may represent a completely new approach to wastewater treatment. If power generation in these systems can be increased, MFC technology may provide a new method to offset wastewater treatment plant operating costs, making advanced wastewater treatment more affordable for both developing and industrialized nations.
01 Jan 1978
TL;DR: In this article, the basic concepts from general chemistry for environmental engineering are presented, as well as fundamental concepts from physical chemistry and equilibrium chemistry for the analysis of wastewater and wastewater in the field of environmental engineering.
Abstract: Part 1 Fundamentals of chemistry for environmental engineering: basic concepts from general chemistry basic concepts from physical chemistry basic concepts from equilibrium chemistry basic concepts from organic chemistry biochemistry colloid chemistry nuclear chemistry Part 2 Wastewater and wastewater analysis: basic concepts form quantitative analysis instrumental methods of analysis turbidity colour standard solutions pH acidity alkalinity hardness disinfection chlorides dissolved oxygen biochemical oxygen demand chemical oxygen demand nitrogen residue iron and magnganese flouride sulfate phosphorous and phosphate grease volatile acids volatile organics trace inorganics
TL;DR: The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient-rich centrate offers a new option of applying algal process in MWTP to manage the nutrient load for the aeration tank to which the centrate is returned, serving the dual roles of nutrient reduction and valuable biofuel feedstock production.
Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of green algae Chlorella sp. on wastewaters sampled from four different points of the treatment process flow of a local municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) and how well the algal growth removed nitrogen, phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (COD), and metal ions from the wastewaters. The four wastewaters were wastewater before primary settling (#1 wastewater), wastewater after primary settling (#2 wastewater), wastewater after activated sludge tank (#3 wastewater), and centrate (#4 wastewater), which is the wastewater generated in sludge centrifuge. The average specific growth rates in the exponential period were 0.412, 0.429, 0.343, and 0.948 day(-1) for wastewaters #1, #2, #3, and #4, respectively. The removal rates of NH4-N were 82.4%, 74.7%, and 78.3% for wastewaters #1, #2, and #4, respectively. For #3 wastewater, 62.5% of NO3-N, the major inorganic nitrogen form, was removed with 6.3-fold of NO2-N generated. From wastewaters #1, #2, and #4, 83.2%, 90.6%, and 85.6% phosphorus and 50.9%, 56.5%, and 83.0% COD were removed, respectively. Only 4.7% was removed in #3 wastewater and the COD in #3 wastewater increased slightly after algal growth, probably due to the excretion of small photosynthetic organic molecules by algae. Metal ions, especially Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Mn in centrate, were found to be removed very efficiently. The results of this study suggest that growing algae in nutrient-rich centrate offers a new option of applying algal process in MWTP to manage the nutrient load for the aeration tank to which the centrate is returned, serving the dual roles of nutrient reduction and valuable biofuel feedstock production.
TL;DR: In this paper, the characteristics of restaurant wastewater were investigated and high oil and grease contents were detected, and the optimum charge loading and current density were 1.67-9.95 F/m3 wastewater and 30-80 A/m2 depending on the wastewater tested.
Abstract: The characteristics of restaurant wastewater were investigated. High oil and grease contents were detected. Electrocoagulation was used to treat this type of wastewater. Different electrode materials and operational conditions were examined. Aluminum was preferred to iron. Charge loading was found to be the only variable that affected the treatment efficiency significantly. The optimum charge loading and current density were 1.67–9.95 F/m3 wastewater and 30–80 A/m2 depending on the wastewater tested. The removal efficiency of oil and grease exceeded 94% for all wastewaters tested. The experimental results also show that the electrocoagulation can neutralize wastewater pH. Several mechanisms associated with pH variation are proposed.
TL;DR: Power output was found to be a function of wastewater strength according to a Monod-type relationship, with a half-saturation constant of Ks = 461 or 719 mg COD/L, and power generation was sustained at high rates with several organic substrates.
Abstract: A microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a device that converts organic matter to electricity using microorganisms as the biocatalyst. Most MFCs contain two electrodes separated into one or two chambers that are operated as a completely mixed reactor. In this study, a flat plate MFC (FPMFC) was designed to operate as a plug flow reactor (no mixing) using a combined electrode/proton exchange membrane (PEM) system. The reactor consisted of a single channel formed between two nonconductive plates that were separated into two halves by the electrode/PEM assembly. Each electrode was placed on an opposite side of the PEM, with the anode facing the chamber containing the liquid phase and the cathode facing a chamber containing only air. Electricity generation using the FPMFC was examined by continuously feeding a solution containing wastewater, or a specific substrate, into the anode chamber. The system was initially acclimated for 1 month using domestic wastewater orwastewater enriched with a specific substrate such as acetate. Average power density using only domestic wastewater was 72+/-1 mW/m2 at a liquid flow rate of 0.39 mL/min [42% COD (chemical oxygen demand) removal, 1.1 h HRT (hydraulic retention time)]. At a longer HRT = 4.0 h, there was 79% COD removal and an average power density of 43+/-1 mW/m2. Power output was found to be a function of wastewater strength according to a Monod-type relationship, with a half-saturation constant of Ks = 461 or 719 mg COD/L. Power generation was sustained at high rates with several organic substrates (all at approximately 1000 mg COD/L), including glucose (212+/-2 mW/ m2), acetate (286+/-3 mW/m2), butyrate (220+/-1 mW/ m2), dextran (150+/-1 mW/m2), and starch (242+/-3 mW/ m2). These results demonstrate the versatility of power generation in a MFC with a variety of organic substrates and show that power can be generated at a high rate in a continuous flow reactor system.
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