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Chemical state

About: Chemical state is a(n) research topic. Over the lifetime, 2378 publication(s) have been published within this topic receiving 78183 citation(s).

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01 Jan 1939

14,243 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Chemical state X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of first row transition metals and their oxides and hydroxides is challenging due to the complexity of their 2p spectra resulting from peak asymmetries, complex multiplet splitting, shake-up and plasmon loss structure, and uncertain, overlapping binding energies. Our previous paper [M.C. Biesinger et al., Appl. Surf. Sci. 257 (2010) 887–898.] in which we examined Sc, Ti, V, Cu and Zn species, has shown that all the values of the spectral fitting parameters for each specific species, i.e. binding energy (eV), full wide at half maximum (FWHM) value (eV) for each pass energy, spin–orbit splitting values and asymmetric peak shape fitting parameters, are not all normally provided in the literature and data bases, and are necessary for reproducible, quantitative chemical state analysis. A more consistent, practical and effective approach to curve fitting was developed based on a combination of (1) standard spectra from quality reference samples, (2) a survey of appropriate literature databases and/or a compilation of literature references and (3) specific literature references where fitting procedures are available. This paper extends this approach to the chemical states of Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni metals, and various oxides and hydroxides where intense, complex multiplet splitting in many of the chemical states of these elements poses unique difficulties for chemical state analysis. The curve fitting procedures proposed use the same criteria as proposed previously but with the additional complexity of fitting of multiplet split spectra which has been done based on spectra of numerous reference materials and theoretical XPS modeling of these transition metal species. Binding energies, FWHM values, asymmetric peak shape fitting parameters, multiplet peak separation and peak area percentages are presented. The procedures developed can be utilized to remove uncertainties in the analysis of surface states in nano-particles, corrosion, catalysis and surface-engineered materials.

5,616 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A detailed description of the electronic properties, chemical state, and structure of uniform single and few-layered graphene oxide (GO) thin films at different stages of reduction is reported. The residual oxygen content and structure of GO are monitored and these chemical and structural characteristics are correlated to electronic properties of the thin films at various stages of reduction. It is found that the electrical characteristics of reduced GO do not approach those of intrinsic graphene obtained by mechanical cleaving because the material remains significantly oxidized. The residual oxygen forms sp3 bonds with carbon atoms in the basal plane such that the carbon sp2 bonding fraction in fully reduced GO is ∼0.80. The minority sp3 bonds disrupt the transport of carriers delocalized in the sp2 network, limiting the mobility, and conductivity of reduced GO thin films. Extrapolation of electrical conductivity data as a function of oxygen content reveals that complete removal of oxygen should lead to properties that are comparable to graphene.

1,521 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The chemical state of oxygen, aluminum and zinc in Al-doped ZnO (ZAO) films was investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), as well as the transition zone of the film-to-substrate, by auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The results show that zinc remains mostly in the formal valence states of Zn2+. A distinct asymmetry in Al 2p(3/2) photoelectron peaks has been resolved into two components, one is metallic Al and the other is oxidized Al. The depth profile of the two components revealed that metallic Al mainly exists in the thin surface layer. The close inspection of Ols shows that Ols is composed of three components, centered at 530.15 +/- 0.15, 531.25 +/- 0.20 and 532.40 +/- 0.15 eV, respectively. AES reveals an abrupt transition zone between the ZAO and quartz substrate. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

1,069 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Quantitative chemical state X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis of mixed nickel metal, oxide, hydroxide and oxyhydroxide systems is challenging due to the complexity of the Ni 2p peak shapes resulting from multiplet splitting, shake-up and plasmon loss structures. Quantification of mixed nickel chemical states and the qualitative determination of low concentrations of Ni(III) species are demonstrated via an approach based on standard spectra from quality reference samples (Ni, NiO, Ni(OH)2, NiOOH), subtraction of these spectra, and data analysis that integrates information from the Ni 2p spectrum and the O 1s spectra. Quantification of a commercial nickel powder and a thin nickel oxide film grown at 1-Torr O2 and 300 °C for 20 min is demonstrated. The effect of uncertain relative sensitivity factors (e.g. Ni 2.67 ± 0.54) is discussed, as is the depth of measurement for thin film analysis based on calculated inelastic mean free paths. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

945 citations

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