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Chewing tobacco

About: Chewing tobacco is a research topic. Over the lifetime, 1104 publications have been published within this topic receiving 29806 citations. The topic is also known as: chewing tobacco.


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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: All forms of tobacco use, including different types of smoking and chewing tobacco and inhalation of SHS, should be discouraged to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

890 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The findings of the study highlight that an agenda to improve health outcomes among the poor in India must include effective interventions to control tobacco use, and suggest a need for periodical surveys using more consistent definitions of tobacco use and eliciting information on different types of tobacco consumed.
Abstract: Objective: To estimate the prevalence and the socioeconomic and demographic correlates of tobacco consumption in India. Design: Cross sectional, nationally representative population based household survey. Subjects: 315 598 individuals 15 years or older from 91 196 households were sampled in National Family Health Survey-2 (1998–99). Data on tobacco consumption were elicited from household informants. Measures and methods: Prevalence of current smoking and current chewing of tobacco were used as outcome measures. Simple and two way cross tabulations and multivariate logistic regression analysis were the main analytical methods. Results: Thirty per cent of the population 15 years or older—47% men and 14% of women—either smoked or chewed tobacco, which translates to almost 195 million people—154 million men and 41million women in India. However, the prevalence may be underestimated by almost 11% and 1.5% for chewing tobacco among men and women, respectively, and by 5% and 0.5% for smoking among men and women, respectively, because of use of household informants. Tobacco consumption was significantly higher in poor, less educated, scheduled castes and scheduled tribe populations. The prevalence of tobacco consumption increased up to the age of 50 years and then levelled or declined. The prevalence of smoking and chewing also varied widely between different states and had a strong association with individual’s sociocultural characteristics. Conclusion: The findings of the study highlight that an agenda to improve health outcomes among the poor in India must include effective interventions to control tobacco use. Failure to do so would most likely result in doubling the burden of diseases—both communicable and non-communicable—among India’s teeming poor. There is a need for periodical surveys using more consistent definitions of tobacco use and eliciting information on different types of tobacco consumed. The study also suggests a need to adjust the prevalence estimates based on household informants

578 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Overall nicotine exposure was twice as large after single exposures to smokeless tobacco compared with cigarette smoking, and relatively low levels of nicotine and lesser cardiovascular responses were observed with use of nicotine gum.
Abstract: Because of recent resurgence in its consumption, the effects and health consequences of smokeless tobacco are of considerable public health interest. We studied the extent and time course of absorption of nicotine and cardiovascular effects of smokeless tobacco (oral snuff and chewing tobacco) and compared it with smoking cigarettes and chewing nicotine gum in 10 healthy volunteers. Maximum levels of nicotine were similar but, because of prolonged absorption, overall nicotine exposure was twice as large after single exposures to smokeless tobacco compared with cigarette smoking. All tobacco use increased heart rate and blood pressure, with a tendency toward a greater overall cardiovascular effect despite evidence of development of some tolerance to effects of nicotine with use of smokeless tobacco. Relatively low levels of nicotine and lesser cardiovascular responses were observed with use of nicotine gum. Adverse health consequences of smoking that are nicotine related would be expected to present a similar hazard with the use of smokeless tobacco.

575 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Kimberly A. Maxwell1
TL;DR: A longitudinal project examined peer influence across five risk behaviors: cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, marijuana use, tobacco chewing, and sexual debut as mentioned in this paper, and found that a random same sex peer predicts a teen's risk behavior initiation.
Abstract: This longitudinal project examined peer influence across five risk behaviors: cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, marijuana use, tobacco chewing, and sexual debut A total of 1,969 adolescents aged 12–18 years completed two waves of data collection Each respondent matched behavior data for at least one friend Results found that a random same sex peer predicts a teen's risk behavior initiation; there is influence only to initiate cigarette and marijuana use; and that there is influence to initiate and stop alcohol and chewing tobacco use This finding suggests that friends may protect adolescents from risk activities The study has implications for understanding how peer influence, expressed as social norms, may be used in public health campaigns that target teen behavior

486 citations

BookDOI
01 Jan 2001
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors present an overview of the history of the use of low-yield products for reducing exposure to tobacco products and their role in reducing exposure in health outcomes.
Abstract: EXECUTIVE SUMMARY SECTION I: INTRODUCTION, BACKGROUND, AND CONCLUSIONS INTRODUCTION History of Harm Reduction Definitions Nicotine Pharmaceutical Products Regulatory Issues and Authorities Committee Charge and Process Application of Risk Assessment to Tobacco Harm Reduction Operating Precepts PRINCIPLES OF HARM REDUCTION Conceptual Framework for Harm Reduction Applications Comparing Other Harm Reduction Interventions to Those for Smoking Conclusions HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND LESSONS LEARNED Tobacco Marketing: Early Health Claims Health Impact of Low-Yield Products Risk Perception Potential Influence of PREPs on Tobacco Use Behaviors Summary and Relevance to PREPs PRODUCTS FOR TOBACCO EXPOSURE REDUCTION Tobacco and Tobacco Products Pharmaceutical Products Other Potential Harm Reduction Methods: Behavioral Strategies and Tobacco Control Policies Regulation of Exposure Reduction Products THE SCIENTIFIC BASIS FOR PREP ASSESSMENT Tobacco Smoke and Toxicology Exposure and Biomarker Assessment in Humans Nicotine Pharmacology Cancer Cariovascular Disease Nonneoplastic Respiratory Disease Reproductive and Developmental Effects Other Health Effects SURVEILLANCE FOR THE HEALTH AND BEHAVIORAL CONSEQUENCES OF EXPOSURE REDUCTION Existing Tobacco Surveillance Systems Proposed Surveillance System Enhancements Issues and Limitations Regarding Surveillance Systems for Assessing Tobacco-Related Health Outcomes Summary and Recommendations IMPLEMENTATION OF A SCIENCE-BASED POLICY OF HARM REDUCTION Next Steps: An Overview Principles for Regulating Potential Reduced-Exposure Products Summary PRINCIPAL CONCLUSIONS SECTION II: EVIDENCE FOR THE SCIENCE BASE NICOTINE PHARMACOLOGY Basic and Human Pharmacology Pharmacokinetics Pharmacodynamics Research Agenda TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOXICOLOGY Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Tobacco Smoke Toxicity of Tobacco Smoke Assessment of Potential Exposure Reduction Products Synergistic Effects with Other Pollutants Molecular Biology Testing Tools Smokeless Tobacco Toxicity General Research Agenda and Recommendations EXPOSURE AND BIOMARKER ASSESSMENT IN HUMANS External Exposure Assessment: The FTC Method and Questionnaire Data Biomarkers of Exposures Biomarkers Estimating the Biologically Effective Dose Biomarkers of Potential Harm Host Susceptibility Genetic Predispositions to Smoking Addiction Biomarker Assessment for Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure Development and Validation of Biomarker Assays, Including Quality Control Conclusions Research Agenda CANCER Mutagenesis and DNA Damage Carinogenesis Tobacco Mutagens and Carcinogens Scientific Methods for Assessing Harm Reduction Strategies Lung Cancer Oropharyngeal Cancers Bladder Cancer Endometrial Cancer Environmental Tobacco Smoke Cigar Smoking Smokeless Tobacco Products Studies of Nicotine Mutagenicity and Carinogenicity Conclusions Research Agenda Special Issues in Study Design CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE Coronary Heart Disease Extracardiac Vascular Disease Other Variables Influenced by Smoking Surrogate Markers Conclusions Research Agenda NONNEOPLASTIC RESPIRATORY DISEASES Biomarkers of Respiratory Diseases Chronic Obstructive Plumonary Disease Asthma Respiratory Infections Summary and Conclusions Research Agenda REPRODUCTIVE AND DEVELOPMENTAL EFFECTS Fertility Impairment Spontaneous Abortions Placental Complications Preterm Delivery Low Birthweight Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) Congenital Malformations Cognitive and Behavioral Deficits in Childhood Fetal Lung Development Smokeless Tobacco Conclusions Recommendations OTHER HEALTH EFFECTS Peptic Ulcers Surgical Wound Healing Inflammatory Bowel Disease Rheumatoid Arthritis Oral Disease Dementia Orthopedic Consequences Ocular Disease Dermatologic Conditions Diabetes Renal Disease Schizophrenia Depression Weight Change Drug Interactions Fire Safety Parkinson's Disease Preeclampsia Summary Recommendations APPENDIXES A PRESENTATIONS AND SUBMISSIONS B COMMITTEE BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES C TIME LINE OF TOBACCO EVENTS INDEX

459 citations


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Performance
Metrics
No. of papers in the topic in previous years
YearPapers
202335
202260
202138
202053
201950
201866